Succulents

Adenium

Adenium obesum is commonly known as the ‘Desert Rose’. It usually grows around 1m tall in a domestic environment and makes an excellent specimen for bonsai. Leaf drop can be common after drought or frost. Eye-catching flowers form in late spring through to autumn.


Adromischus

Adromischus cristatus, commonly known as the ‘Crinkle Leaf Plant’, is a small (rarely exceeding 15cm) succulent which prefers part sun to part shade and protection from frost. This species will send up a small flower spike during spring.


Aeonium

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Aeonium is a genus of around 35 species and many cultivars, all forming succulent rosettes on stems. A spear of yellow or white flowers forms in spring. They will tolerate both sun and shade positions; however they will need protection from the hot afternoon sun until they have acclimatised and will usually only tolerate light frost. Listed below are some of the more commonly found


 Aeoniums:

‘Blushing Beauty’ – Leaves are red-bronze at the tips and green in the centre, usually less than 80cm in height.

‘Cyclops’ – Forms large heads which are bronze at the tips and green in the centre, usually less than 1m in height.

‘Chocolate Rose’ – Dark burgundy leaves with a touch of green in the centre, usually less than 50cm in height.

‘The Green Rose’ – Green-leaved Aeonium, usually less than 80cm in height.

‘Schwarzkopf’/ ‘Black Rose’/ ‘Black Beauty’ – Deep burgundy, almost black leaves with a touch of green in the centre, up to 1m in height.

‘Short Black’ – Deep crimson to black leaves, compact, usually around 60cm in height.

‘Sunburst’ – Colourful, variegated leaves with a hint of pink, usually less than 50cm tall.

‘Suncup’ – Variegated leaves, small growing, usually less than 30cm in height.

‘Velour’ – Burgundy leaves with a touch of green in the centre, usually around 50cm in height.

A. tabuliforme – ‘Saucer Plant’ or ‘Dinner Plate Plant’, a green, flat growing species which can reach 45cm in diameter.


 Agave

Agave is a genus of around 225 species. They grow in a full sun to part shade position and some species will need protection from frost. Listed below are some of the more commonly found species:

A. attenuate – This species forms rosettes of blue-green, fleshy leaves atop stems which typically grow to around 1.5m tall.

A. geminiflora – The ‘Twin-Flowered Agave’ has narrow, dark green leaves and usually grows no bigger than 80cm in height.

A. ferdinandi-regis - The ‘King Ferdinand Agave’ or ‘King Agave’ is a small growing species (usually around 45cm) which forms a rosette of rigid, dark green foliage with prominent white streaks.

A. victoriae reginae –The ‘Queen Victoria Agave’, ‘Royal Agave’, or ‘Century Plant’ typically reaches approximately 50cm in height and forms a rosette of rigid, dark green foliage with prominent white streaks.

A. tequilana - The ‘Blue Agave’ (popularly known as the base ingredient for tequila) has distinctive blue foliage and typically gets to around 1.5 metres tall in a domestic environment. 


Aloe

Aloe is a genus of around 550 species. Most aloes form a rosette of fleshy leaves and prominent flower spikes and generally require full sun to part shade. Listed below are some of the more commonly found species:

A. vera – Commonly known for the medicinal uses of this species, Aloe vera grows to around 1m in height in a natural environment but can also serve happily as a houseplant. It prefers a sunny position, but will need protection from the hot afternoon sun and protection from frost.  Orange flower spikes form in spring and summer.

A. aculeata – This species typically grows to around 60cm tall and is covered in small spines. Flower spikes of yellow, red and orange form in summer. Protection from frost is required.

A. x alworthia ‘Black Gem’ – A hybrid of Aloe and Haworthia, this small growing (usually around 10cm tall), densely clumping plant will be greener when grown in the shade and green to almost bronze/black when grown in the sun.

A. arborescens – The ‘Candelabra Aloe’ can reach up to 3m in height when fully grown, with vibrant red-orange flower spikes in winter. The leaves are serrated and often blue-green in colour.

A. dorotheae – The ‘Sunset Aloe’ is a clumping species which reaches approximately 30cm in height. The leaves will turn a brilliant orange when grown in the sun and will be green with white speckles when grown in the shade. Red flower spikes form in spring and summer.

A. barberae – The ‘Tree Aloe’ reaches approximately 15m in height in nature, bearing red-orange flower spikes in winter when mature. It will need protection from frost.

A. humilis var. echina – Commonly known as ‘Croc Jaws’, this small (usually less than 20cm) species forms red-orange flower spikes in spring and summer and will need protection from frost.

A. deltoideodonta ‘Delta Lights’ – A distinctively variegated hybrid which usually grows to around 45cm tall.

A. juvenna – The ‘Dainty Aloe’ or ‘Tiger Tooth Aloe’ is a small (typically less than 30cm tall) species which is greener when grown in the shade and red-bronze when grown in the sun. It will need protection from frost. Red-orange flower spikes form in summer to early autumn, though flowering can be infrequent.

A. spinosissima – The ‘Spider Aloe’ can reach approximately 90cm in height and has long leaves with small teeth along the margins. Red-orange flower spikes form in winter.


Ceropegia

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Ceropegia woodii (commonly known as ‘Chain of Hearts’ or ‘Rosary Vine’) is a trailing succulent ideal for hanging baskets which has mottled, heart shaped leaves and distinctive flowers. Each vine typically reaches approximately 90cm in length. This plant will need protection from the hot afternoon sun.


Cotyledon

C. ladismithiensis – Commonly known as ‘Bear’s Paws’, this species typically grows to around 20cm and requires a sunny or partly shaded position. It will need protection from frost. Yellow-orange bell shaped flowers form in spring.

C. macrantha – Commonly known as the ‘Paddle Plant’, this species will grow to around 90cm in height and prefers a sunny to partly shaded position, however it will need protection from the hot afternoon sun. Orange to red flowers appear in winter.

C. orbiculata – Commonly known as ‘Pig’s Ear’, this species usually reaches around 1m in height when mature and comes in a green or blue-grey leaved form. Red-orange flowers appear in summer. It prefers the full sun and will tolerate moderate frost. Common cultivars of this species include ‘Silver Waves’, which has distinctive rippled foliage, and ‘Delight’, which is a smaller growing form (usually around 40cm).


Crassula

Crassula is a large genus of around 300 species which range in size, habit, appearance and growing conditions. Listed below are some of the more commonly found species:

C. anomala – This groundcover species grows well in full sun or partly shaded positions. The densely clustered foliage is green with burgundy tips. Tiny white flowers appear in spring.

C. arborescens – Commonly known as the ‘Silver Dollar’ plant or ‘Silver Jade’, this species displays silver, rounded foliage with red margins and prefers a full sun to partly shaded position. Clusters of white, star-shaped flowers appear in late spring and summer.

C. arborescens undulatifolia – Commonly known as ‘Rippled Jade’, this species has green to blue-grey foliage with red, rippled edges. It does best in a sunny to partly shaded position and will need protection from frost.

C. capitella – Sometimes known as ‘Campfire Plant’, this species displays small, pointed, brightly coloured leaves of green and red colouring. It rarely exceeds 30cm in height and grows best in a full sun or partly shaded position with protection from frost. Small white flowers appear between the foliage during the summer.

C. erosula – Usually sold as ‘Campfire’, this brightly coloured succulent displays foliage of bright green, yellow, orange and red, becoming more vivid in winter. It grows well in full sun to part shade. White flowers will appear from late autumn and into spring.  

C. muscosa – This succulent displays feathery green foliage of small, densely packed leaves and typically reaches approximately 45cm in height. Small white flowers appear between the leaves in both summer and winter. It prefers a partly shaded position.

C. ovata – Generally known as ‘Jade’, ‘Giant Jade’, ‘Friendship Tree’, ‘Lucky Plant’, and ‘Money Tree’, this commonly grown species features thick stems with rounded foliage which is green with red edges, particularly vibrant when grown in the sun. A mass of pink-white flowers will form at the beginning of spring. It prefers a full sun to partly shaded position.

C. ovata ‘Bluebird’ – Also known as the ‘Blue Jade’, this plant has rounded blue-grey foliage with red margins and typically grows to around 30cm in height and 45cm wide. It will grow in full sun to full shade and tolerates light frost. White flowers appear in winter.

C. ovata ‘Gollum’, ‘Hobbit’ – Also known as ‘Green Coral’, ‘Baby Toes’, ‘Trumpet Jade’ and ‘Hobbit’s Pipe’, this cultivar has uniquely shaped leaves which are green with red, concave tips. Thick trunks form with maturity, making it a popular bonsai specimen. It generally grows to around 90cm in height and 60cm wide and forms pink-white flowers in late autumn and early winter.

C. ovata ‘Hummel's Sunset’ – Sometimes known as the ‘Golden Jade’, this shrubby succulent bares a similar resemblance to the original C. ovata form, however it displays brightly coloured foliage of green, yellow and red. It will grow well in a full sun to fully shaded position and develops pink-white flowers in late autumn and throughout winter. Protection from frost is required.

C. ovata variegata – This variegated form displays ivory white and green striped foliage which can develop a red blush along the margins when grown in the sun. Pink-white flowers appear from spring to the end of autumn. It can grow up to 1m in height and prefers a full sun to partly shaded position.

C. perforata – This dainty species forms triangular blue-green leaves with red edges. It typically grows to around 30cm tall and wide and develops white flowers in spring and summer. A full sun to partly shaded position is preferred, needing protection from the hot afternoon sun. C. perforata variegata is the variegated form.

C. pyramidalis – This species displays interesting foliage of thin, triangular, tightly pressed leaves which form quadrangular columns. The leaves are emerald green and develop a red-purple blush at the tips when grown in the sun.

C. sarmentosa variegata – This species displays pointed leaves which are green with broad, creamy yellow margins which often develop a pink blush. It does best in a full sun to partly shaded position and forms pink-white flowers in summer to early winter.

C. ‘Spring Time’ – This small growing species typically gets to a height of around 15cm and displays thick, dark green leaves with a silvery sheen. Dense clusters of pink flowers form during winter and spring. It prefers a position of full sun or part shade.

C. tetragona – This species displays dark green, elongated leaves and does best in a full sun to partly shaded position. It usually grows to around 60cm tall and makes a good specimen for bonsai. White flowers develop in spring and early summer.


 Echeveria

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The genus Echeveria is host to multiple cultivars presenting fleshy rosettes of different colours, sizes, leaf shapes and growing habits, making it a popular plant for succulent collectors. Listed below are some of the more commonly found species and cultivars:

E. ‘Afterglow’ – The incandescent foliage of this species displays lavender to pink colouring, forming rosettes which are around 30cm in diameter. Red-orange flowers form in summer. It grows best in a sunny to partly shaded position and will need protection from the hot afternoon sun.

E. albicans – This clumping species displays densely packed rosettes of blue-grey foliage, usually just over 10cm in diameter. Coral pink and yellow flowers develop in spring. It is tolerant of frost and prefers a full sun to partly shaded position with protection from the hot afternoon sun.

E. ‘Black Prince’ – This clumping succulent features distinctive rosettes of dark brown to black leaves with green in the centre. Red flower spikes form in autumn and winter. It will tolerate full sun to full shade.

E. derenbergii – This species produces multiple offsets, forming a clump of grey-blue rosettes which are 5-10cm in diameter. Flower spikes of red-orange and yellow bloom in spring. It will tolerate both sun and full shade.

E. ‘Doris Taylor’ – Sometimes referred to as ‘Wooly Rose’, this succulent forms a white fuzz over pale green foliage and occasionally develops a red blush at the tips of the leaves. It will need protection from frost and grows well in a sunny to partly shaded position. Orange and yellow flowers form on spikes during the summer.

E. elegans – Commonly known as the ‘Mexican Snow Ball’, this species displays blue-grey, fleshy rosettes which are densely packed to form a mound. Bright pink and yellow flowers form on stems during winter and spring. It grows best in a full sun to partly shaded position.

E. ‘Emerald Ripple’ – This species features low growing clumps of emerald green foliage. Orange flowers on stems may form during spring, summer and autumn. A full sun or partly shaded position is required.

E. ‘Fanfare’ – The delicate, elongated leaves of this species are a pale green-grey. It prefers a partly shaded position. It forms orange-yellow flowers.

E. glauca – Known widely as ‘Blue Hen and Chicks’, this species offsets profusely to form a mound of flat, blue rosettes. It prefers a sunny to partly shaded position and will need protection from frost. Yellow flowers appear on stems during summer and autumn.

E. ‘Golden Glow’ – This cultivar is usually solitary, producing offsets with age. It is recognised for the golden green foliage it displays, which develops pink blushes along the margins when grown in the sun. It will tolerate full sun to full shade and is tolerant of frost.

E. gibbiflora – This species is the parent plant to many cultivars such as ‘Mauna Loa’ and ‘Perle Von Nurnberg’. It displays eye-catching foliage which is blue-green in the centre and pink-red closer to the edges. It will grow in full sun to full shade.

E. halbingeri – This clumping succulent forms many small, densely packed rosettes of grey-green foliage, displaying blushes of pink around the tips of the leaves. It will tolerate a full sun to full shade position and develops coral flower stems with yellow flowers from the middle of spring to the middle of autumn.

E. ‘Mauna Loa’ – This cultivar is often solitary and develops a stem over time. It forms a large rosette up to 60cm in diameter which is blue-green in the centre and pink-purple around the rippled edges. It does best in a full sun to partly shaded position but will need protection from the hot afternoon sun. It will tolerate light frost. Purple flower spikes form in autumn and winter with pink-orange flowers.

E. pallida – This species forms loose rosettes of pale lime green leaves which often develop a pink blush at the edges. It grows best in full sun to part shade and displays pink flower stems during winter.

E. ‘Perle Von Nurnberg’ – This cultivar displays pearly lavender rosettes which are usually around 15-20cm in diameter. Coral flowers appear on stems during spring and summer. It prefers sunny or partly shaded positions but some protection from the hot afternoon sun may be required. This plant tolerates light frost.

E. ‘Raindrops’ – This usually solitary cultivar features blue-green foliage with pink-red edges, forming a single raindrop-like growth in the centre of each leaf which develop with age. It prefers a sunny or lightly shaded position and requires protection from frost.

E. subsessilis – This succulent forms rosettes of blue-grey foliage with bright pink margins around the leaves, particularly noticeable when grown in a sunny position. Pink-orange flowers form on stems from spring to autumn. It grows best in a full sun to partly shaded position and will need protection from frost.

E. runyonii ‘Topsy Turvy’ – This unique cultivar features grey-blue foliage which is keel-shaped, with the leaf tips pointing towards the centre of the plant. Red and orange flowers appear on stems in late summer and autumn. It will tolerate a full sun to full shade position with protection from the hot afternoon sun.


Euphorbia

Euphorbia is a large and diverse genus of around 2,000 species which exhibit varying life cycles, growth habits, colours shapes and sizes. Some species fall into the category of succulents. Listed below are some of the more commonly found of those species:

E. aeruginosa – This branching species features blue-green, quadrangular stems with red thorns which appear all over the plant. It typically only grows to around 30cm and prefers a partly shaded position. Yellow flowers are prolific in late spring.

E. ferox – This species forms branches from the lower part of the plant and features long thorns which are red at first, turning dark purple and eventually to grey over time, contrasting well over the green stems. It will take on a burgundy hue during the colder months and put on small green leaves in summer. This plant prefers a sunny to partly shaded position, with protection from frost and the hot afternoon sun. Yellow flowers form in spring.

terrariumE. horrida - This species forms branches from the lower part of the plant and features long thorns which are red at first, turning brown over time. Yellow flowers bloom in summer. It will tolerate full sun to part shade but will need protection from the hot afternoon sun.

E. milii – Commonly known as ‘Crown of Thorns’, this species is the parent to many hybrids, such as ‘Lipstick’ which has large leaves and large flowers, ‘Sanoma’ which has large leaves and small flowers, and the dwarf E. milii which has small leaves and small flowers. They feature spiny grey-brown stems which become a leafy shrub, with small yellow flowers housed by petal-like bracts, available in a variety of colours. These can appear throughout the year, particularly prolific in summer. These plants will tolerate full sun to part shade, with protection from the hot afternoon sun until acclimatised.

E. pentagona – This branching species forms green columns with red spines which turn brown over time. It also forms small green leaves which are early deciduous. It is tolerant of light frost and grows well in a sunny to partly shaded position but will need protection from the hot afternoon sun. Dark red and purple cyathia form at the top of the plant.

E. pugniformis – Sometimes referred to as ‘Medusa’s Head’, this uniquely shaped species displays rows of upright green stems which branch from a thick caudex. It forms small green leaves and yellow cyathia, usually atop the central new growth, during spring. It prefers a sunny to partly shaded position, with protection from the hot afternoon sun until acclimatised. An equally unusual cristate form is also available, E. pugniformis cristata.

E. tirucalli – Known under a variety of common names such as ‘Firesticks’,‘Firestick Plant’, ‘Sticks on Fire’, ‘Milk Bush’ and ‘Pencil Tree’, this spectacular species features branches of long, thin stems which can show colours of green, yellow, orange, pink and red (particularly when grown in the sun). It will grow in full sun to part shade. Red and yellow cyathia form in late spring and summer.

E. trigona – Commonly known as the ‘African Milk Tree’, this branching species tolerates full sun to part shade and needs protection from frost. The spiny green stems feature white striations and small green leaves. E. trigona rubra is another form which displays burgundy colouring on both the leaves and stems.


Faucaria

F. felina tuberculosa is a low-growing, clumping succulent which displays fleshy, triangular, green leaves with white tubercules and tooth-like growth along the margins (giving it common names like ‘Tiger Jaws’ and ‘Knobby Jaws’). Yellow flowers appear in autumn. It will grow in full sun to part shade.


Fenestraria

Fenestraria aurantiaca is commonly known as ‘Baby Toes’, referring to the clumping, upright habit of the blue-green, finger-like leaves. Each leaf has a translucent window at the tip to allow sunlight in. It prefers a sunny position and requires protection from frost. Yellow or white flowers appear in spring.


Gasteria

G. batesiana – Often referred to as ‘Ox Tongue’, this species features dark green, thick, rough leaves with white, mottled cross bands made up of small tubercules. A red hue develops when grown in the sun. A pink and yellow inflorescence forms during spring. It will grow best in a sunny or partly shaded position, with protection from the hot afternoon sun.

G. pillansii – This species forms leaves in two opposite rows, which are long and dark green with mottled white markings. A yellow and pink-red inflorescence forms periodically in spring and summer. It prefers a sunny to partly shaded position.


Graptopetalum

G. pentandrum subsp. superbumforms flat rosettes which are a powdery grey-lavender colour, each rosette reaching approximately 10-15cm in diameter. It will tolerate a full sun or shaded position and is tolerant of frost. Branching spikes of interesting flowers appear in winter and spring, which are star-like in shape with a white centre dotted with red marks and finished with red tips.


Graptoveria

Graptoveria are a group of hybrid crosses between Graptopetalum and Echeveria which typically developclusters of fleshy rosettes. Listed below are some of the more commonly found cultivars:

G. ‘Acaulis’ – This cultivar displays a blue-green centre with pink at the tips of the leaves which becomes deeper in colour during winter. It prefers a sunny to partly shaded position and develops cream flowers which appear on spikes in spring.

G. ‘Darley Sunshine’ – This cultivar displays green leaves with red along the margins, forming a clump of rosettes. It prefers a sunny or partly shaded position and will need protection from frost.

G. 'Debbi' – This cultivar features stunning lavender leaves, with each rosette reaching approximately 15cm in diameter. It grows best in a sunny to partly shaded position. Purple-pink flowers form on spikes from late winter to early summer.

G. ‘Tricolour’ – This cultivar features thick, densely packed rosettes of grey to powdery purple leaves which occasionally blush with pink, eventually forming a clump approximately 20-30cm in height. It prefers a full sun to partly shaded position.


 Haworthia

H. attenuata – Commonly sold as ‘Zebra Plant’, this species displays dark green clumping rosettes of upright, pointed leaves which are horizontally striped with bands of white tubercules. Cream coloured flowers appear on spikes at any time of the year. It prefers a full to part shade position. This species is often confused with the similar looking H. fasciata, which has wider leaves and less conspicuous tubercules.

H. cooperi – The foliage of this species is mostly green featuring blushes of maroon and is very translucent towards the fibrous leaf tips. It forms densely packed rosettes to create a mound. White flowers appear on spikes during spring and summer. A sunny to partly shaded position is preferred, with protection from the hot afternoon sun and frost.

H. cymbiformis – This species forms clumps of fleshy green rosettes which feature translucent striations along the leaves. It prefers a full to partly shaded position. White flowers appear on spikes throughout the year, particularly in spring and early summer.

H. mirabilis – This species forms clumps of thick green rosettes which feature vertical translucent striations along the leaves and small, tooth-like growths along the margins. The colour changes to a dark brown, purple-red colour when grown in the sun. They prefer a lightly shaded position and will form a small white inflorescence.

H. retusa ‘Grey Ghost’ – This cultivar features pale green leaves with white striations and translucent tips. The rosettes are typically 15cm in diameter and form many offsets. Dainty white flowers form in spring. They require full to partial shade.


Hoya

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There are around 200 species of Hoya, commonly known as ‘Waxplant’ or ‘Waxflower’. They are typically vine-like creepers, with succulent leaves and clusters of spectacular flowers, which can be grown on a support or in a hanging basket. Listed below are some of the more commonly found species and cultivars:

H. carnosa compacta – Usually referred to as ‘Indian Rope’, this species features tightly packed leaves which curl towards the vine. It prefers a sunny to partially shaded position. Clusters of pink and red fragrant flowers bloom from spring to early autumn. A variegated form is also available, H. carnosa compacta variegata.

H. heuschkeliana – This specieshas oval shaped leaves which are lighter green on the underside, developing a red hue when grown in the sun. Clusters of small, urn-shaped flowers appear throughout the year when growing conditions are right, which are scented and come in pink, yellow or burgundy. H. heuschkeliana variegata is the variegated form.

H. kerrii – Often sold as ‘Sweetheart Plant’ or ‘Valentine Hoya’ due to the heart-shaped leaves, this species produces scented clusters of star-shaped white flowers with a dark red centre. It prefers a sunny to partly shaded position and requires protection from frost. A variegated form is also available, H. kerrii albomarginata.

H. lauterbachii – Commonly known as the ‘Giant Wax Plant’, this species develops some of the largest of the Hoya flowers, forming a large, scented cluster of yellow and burgundy blooms. Flowering starts once the plant is mature, usually when the vines are around 2m in length. It requires a sunny to partially shaded position.

H. magnifica – This species develops scented clusters of white, star-shaped flowers from late winter and throughout summer. The green foliage is large, elongated and fuzzy to the touch. It will grow best in a partly shaded position.

H. multiflora ‘Shooting Stars’ – This species features unique blooms, forming clusters of yellow and white elongated flowers which are maroon at the tips. The leaves are green and elongated. It prefers a partly shaded position.

H. pubicalyx ‘Royal Hawaiian Purple’ – This species features deep green, elongated foliage which is mottled with white markings and turns purple-red when grown in the sun. The clusters of flowers can come out as pink to purple to almost black. It prefers a full to partly shaded position and will tolerate short periods of frost.


 Kalanchoe

Kalanchoe is a genus of around 135 succulent species, displaying a variety of different growth habits, colours, shapes and sizes. Listed below are some of the more common varieties:

K. beharensis – This species is sometimes known as ‘Elephant’s Ear’ or ‘Felt Bush’, displaying large, elongated, triangle foliage with undulating edges. The leaf colour is blue-grey to olive green with a covering of felt-like brown hairs. It prefers a full sun to partly shaded position and will need protection from frost. Branched flower spikes of yellow-green flowers appear in winter on mature plants.

K. blossfeldiana – This compact species typically grows less than 30cm x 30cm, preferring a full sun to partly shaded position. Eye-catching bunches of flowers can be singles or doubles and come up predominantly in winter, available in red, purple/mauve, yellow, white, pinks and oranges.

K. fedtschenkoi – This shrubby species features oval, somewhat serrated leaves which are blue-grey with seasonal blushes of pink. Red-orange and pink flowers appear on stems during winter and early spring. It will grow in full sun to part shade, needing protection from the hot afternoon sun.

K. hildebrandtii – Commonly sold as ‘Silver Spoons’, this shrubby succulent forms smooth, silver, oval shaped leaves. Orange flowers form on branching stems in winter. It prefers a full sun to partly shaded position.

K. luciae – Often mistakenly sold as the similar looking K. thyrsiflora, this species is commonly known as ‘Paddle Plant’ or ‘Flapjacks’ due to the rounded, flat leaves it displays. The foliage is blue-green at the centre, becoming a vibrant bronze-red towards the tips. Yellow blooms form on spikes with maturity. It grows best in full sun to part shade, with protection from the hot afternoon sun.

K. marmorata – Commonly known as the ‘Pen Wiper Plant’, this species features flat, rounded, lightly serrated, blue-grey foliage with deep burgundy spots. It prefers a full sun to partially shaded position with protection from frost. Spikes of white flowers appear in winter and spring.

K. ‘Medusa’ – This cultivar features large, serrated leaves which are dark green to burgundy in colour. It prefers a full sun to partly shaded position.

K. ‘Pixiebells’ – This compact, trailing cultivar looks magnificent in a hanging pot, forming masses of coral red, bell-shaped flowers during spring. The foliage is round and glossy, dark green. It grows well in a full sun to mostly shaded position.

K. pumila – This low growing groundcover succulent does well in any situation, including hanging pots where it will trail over the sides. It features rounded, somewhat serrated leaves which are silver-grey and covered in a soft fuzz. Lavender pink flower clusters appear on short spikes during winter and spring. It grows best in a sunny or partly shaded position.

K. ‘Queen’ varieties – This brand of cultivars develop beautiful, long lasting clusters of flowers atop flower spikes which are close to the deep green foliage. Flower colours can be red, purple/mauve, yellow, white, pinks and oranges. They prefer a full sun to partly shaded position. For more information visit www.queen.dk.

K. tomentosa – Often referred to as ‘Panda Plant’ or ‘Pussy’s ears’, this species is the parent to a handful of cultivars, all featuring a covering of hair-like fuzz and requiring a sunny or partly shaded position. Flowers are red and appear in winter. The original species has silver leaves with dark brown markings along the toothed margins, however other cultivars display colourings of brown, rosy pink, amber and pale green.


Lithops

Commonly known as ‘Living Stones’, these succulents get their name from their stone-like appearance, which they have developed as a defence mechanism against being consumed by wildlife in their natural environment. They are translucent at the top to allow sunlight into the plant, as they typically grow beneath a surface of sand in nature. Individual plants appear as two succulent leaves which are gently fused together. During winter, a new set of leaves form within the shelter of the two existing leaves, which part in spring and die off, revealing the new leaf pair. Yellow or white flowers appear from the centre of the leaves during late summer and autumn. They prefer a sunny or partly shaded position, with protection from the hot afternoon sun.


Mesembryanthemum

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Popularly known as ‘Pigface’, this groundcover succulent typically sprawls for around 80cm and is often used in difficult areas because it is tolerant of drought, salinity, sand, wind and sun. It forms a dense mat of elongated green or grey-green leaves and puts on a magnificent display of flowers which can be red, pink, purple/mauve, yellow or white. The flowers appear predominantly in spring and open wide in the sunshine and close up at night. It prefers a full sun position but will also tolerate partial shade. 


Pachyphytum

Pachyphytum are sometimes referred to as ‘Moonstones’, particularly P. compactum, which is a small growing species which forms thick, pointed foliage with powdery white markings over a deep purple coloured leaf, becoming green over time. They prefer a sunny to partly shaded position with protection from the hot afternoon sun.


Portulacaria

Portulacaria afra is a common succulent known as ‘Jade’ or the ‘Money Tree’. It has small, round, jade green leaves which contrast against the brown stems. When left to grow, this species becomes a large, dense shrub. It is also popular as a bonsai specimen, proving the versatile nature of the plant. A full sun to partly shaded position is preferred. Small pink flowers appear in late winter and spring. Portulacaria afra variegata is the variegated form.


Sansevieria

S. hahnii – Often sold as a ‘Bird’s Nest’ form, this species forms low growing rosettes of upright, pointed green leaves with lighter green horizontal markings. It prefers a full shade position. It is also available in a selection of variegated forms, featuring yellow margins.

S. trifasciata – Popularly known as ‘Mother-In-Law’s Tongue’ or ‘Snake Plant’, this plant displays long, pointed, upright foliage, forming around a basal rosette. The leaves are dark green with lighter green horizontal markings. The variegated version, S. trifasciata laurentii, is more common, which has thick, yellow margins. An inconspicuous yellow-green flower occasionally develops between the leaves. These plants prefer a full to partly shaded position.

S. superba – This species features the variegated colouring of S. trifasciata laurentii, the wider leaves of S. hahnii, and falls just short of the height of S. trifasciata. It prefers a fully shaded position.

S. trifasciata ‘Moonshine’ – Sometimes known as the ‘Silver Snake Plant’, this variety shows faint green horizontal markings but is mostly silver green. The leaves are pointed, long and upright. It prefers a fully shaded position.


Sedum

Sedum is a large genus of around 600 succulent species, all displaying differences in colouring, shape, size, growth habit and growing requirements. Listed below are some of the more commonly found varieties:

S. albiflora – This low growing species features rounded leaves which are green in the centre and a bright, deep red around the margins. It grows best in a full sun to partly shaded position.

S. ‘Blue Feather’ – This groundcover cultivar displays tightly packed, short, slim leaves which are blue and feather-like in overall appearance. It typically grows approximately 5cm in height and 40cm wide. It prefers a full sun to partly shaded position.

S. ‘Bronze Delight’ – This low growing cultivar typically grows to around 10cm in height and 20cm wide and features pink-bronze rosettes on stems. Pale yellow, star-shaped flowers appear periodically. It grows in full sun or part shade.

S. makinoi ‘Ogon’ – This groundcover cultivar displays vibrant, yellow-green foliage which trails over the edges of pots and looks effective in rockeries. It prefers a sunny to partly shaded position with protection from the hot afternoon sun to avoid bleaching. Yellow flowers develop in the middle of summer.

S. mexicanum – Usually sold as ‘Gold Mound’, this groundcover succulent features golden to lime green feather-like foliage and prefers a sunny to partly shaded position. It can spread up to 60cm and looks effective in a hanging pot and in rockeries. Masses of yellow flowers appear in spring.

S. morganianum – Popularly known as ‘Burro’s Tail’, ‘Donkey Tail’ or the compact variety ‘Burrito’, this species produces trailing stems of fleshy, blue-green leaves and looks effective in a hanging pot. Pink flowers appear in summer. It prefers a sunny to partly shaded position with protection from the hot afternoon sun.

S. pachyphyllum – Commonly known as ‘Blue Jelly Beans’, this species displays rounded, glossy, jelly-bean like leaves which are blue-green in colour, often developing a pink hue at the tips. They prefer a full sun to partly shaded position and develop yellow flowers during the summer.

S. rubrotinctum – Commonly known as ‘Red Jelly Beans’ or ‘Pork and Beans’, this species displays rounded, glossy, jelly-bean like leaves which are green with red tips, particularly vibrant when grown in the sun. They prefer a full sun to partly shaded position and develop yellow flowers during spring.

S. rubrotinctum aurora – Commonly known as ‘Pink Jelly Beans’, this species displays rounded, glossy, jelly-bean like leaves which are pale green with pink tips, particularly vibrant during winter. They prefer a full sun to partly shaded position and develop yellow flowers during spring.

S. spathulifolium – Available in cultivars ‘Silver Blob’ and ‘Cape Blanco’, this groundcover succulent displays silver grey foliage, which forms a dense mat of small rosettes on short stems. Yellow flowers appear in summer. It prefers a full sun to partly shaded position.

S. spathulifolium purpureum ‘Purple Blob’ – This groundcover cultivar displays blue-green to purple foliage, which forms a dense mat of small rosettes on short stems. It prefers a full sun to partly shaded position, with protection from the hot afternoon sun.

S. spectabile ‘Autumn Joy’ – This cultivar features blue-green foliage and is known for the spectacular floral display it puts on starting from summer, when broccoli-like flower buds form on stems above the plant. These buds open into brilliant pink flowers, which become a deep red closer to winter. It prefers a full sun or partly shaded position.

 


Sempervivum

succulents

With around 50 species and thousands of cultivars, Sempervivum have become a popular plant for succulent collectors, with a huge variety of colours and growth habits. They are all comprised of offsetting rosettes and often form clumps. The common name for these plants is ‘House Leeks’. Listed below are some of the more commonly found varieties:

S. tectorum syn. Alpinum – this rosette forming evergreen perennial displays thick grey-green foliage and forms clusters of red-purple flowers on tall shoots in summer. Extremely drought resistant and prefers full sun but can tolerate some light shade.

S. tectorum ‘Oddity’ - Evergreen succulent displaying bright green, dense clustering leaves. Similar to S. tectorum, but the leaves of ‘Oddity’ fold around to create small hollow tubes. Rosettes are roughly 10cm in diameter, with star shaped, red-purple flowers forming on upright stems in summer. The plant will dies off after flowers but is quickly replaced by offshoots. Cold tolerant, full sun to part shade in hotter climates. 

S. calcareum – This species forms large rosettes of 15-20cm displaying blue green leaves with red tips. Prefers full sun with some afternoon shade in hotter areas.

S. montanum (Dwarf) - Small succulent forming clustered rosettes to 5-8cm diameter. Mid green, fleshy leaves typical to Sempervivum, with star shaped red-purple flower forming on stalks in early summer, after which the mother plant will die off. Suitable for sun to light shade in hotter areas, cold tolerant.

S. arachnoideum rubrum - Commonly known as ‘Red Cobweb Hens and Chicks’, this plant produces very small clustered rosettes with grey green leaves, showing a flush of red in spring. Will spread to form a dense mat with pink to red flowers forming in summer, when the plant will die off. Prefers sun to part shade in hotter areas, and is drought tolerant.

S. arachnoideum -Commonly known as ‘Cobweb House Leek’, this species forms small, clustered, grey-green coloured rosettes which are covered in silvery cobweb-like filaments. Pink flowers form in clusters on stems over summer, when the plant will die off. Grows well in full sun and prefers well drained sandy soils.

S. wulfenii – Rosette forming species with blue-green leaves. Reaches 3-6cm in diameter, and will form a fleshy stem bearing yellow star shaped flowers in summer to autumn, followed by the mother plant dying off. Forms mats up to 30cm across. Prefers full sun to some light shade in hotter areas.

S. italicum -

S. ‘Weirdo’ – Medium sized rosettes formed of narrow, yellow-green leaves with flushed red tips.

S. heuffelii - Commonly known as ‘Purple Haze’, this perennial succulent forms rosettes of 3-10cm. The leaves are green, grading to red or brown at the tips. Forms a fleshy stem bearing yellow-white flowers and will die off after flowering. Prefers full sun to some shade in hotter areas.


Senecio

One of the largest genus of flowering plants, Senecio contains over 1200 species. This genera is distributed globally, and species can vary in their habit and growing requirements. Listed below are some of the more commonly found varieties:

S. rowleyanus (String of Pearls) - Commonly known as ‘String of Pearls’, the succulent produces round pea-like leaves on thin, trailing stems. Can produce small white flowers in spring to summer. Prefers a sheltered positon with little direct sunlight, and does well when placed indoors.

S. mandraliscae - Commonly known as ‘Blue Chalk Sticks’ or ‘Blue Finger’, this species produces blue-grey finger shaped leaves, forming a groundcover mat with leaves pointing upwards from the ground. Will form yellow flower on stalks in summer. Prefers full sun to part shade.

S. serpens - Commonly known as ‘Dwarf Blue Chalk Sticks’, forms a more compact groundcover mat then Senecio mandraliscae, but with many of the same characteristics. Small finger shaped blue-grey leaves point up from the ground and forms white flowers on stalks in summer. Prefers full sun.

S. haworthii - Commonly known as ‘Woolly Senecio’, this perennial dwarf shrub displays densely felted, light grey-pale blue succulent leaves. Yellow flowers are produced on clusters. Drought tolerant and prefers full sun to part shade.

S. scaposus - Commonly known as ‘Silver Coral’, this species forms finger shaped grey-silver succulent leaves, angling upwards in clusters. Yellow flowers are produced in groups on stems over summer. Prefers full sun to part shade in hotter areas.

S. articulatus - Commonly known as ‘Candle Plant’, this species reaches 40-60cm in height, with pale green succulent stems and flat green/purple leaves forming only about 50% of the time. This species is dormant in summer, only actively growing throughout winter. Can produce small white cup like flowers. Prefers full sun to part shade and is suitable for indoors.


Stapelia

With flowers that smell of rotting meat, it’s easy to see how many species of Stapelia have gotten the common name ‘Carrion Flower’. With 50 species of clump forming succulents, this genus is often grown by collectors for their unique appearance and scent, which has been developed to attract flies as pollinators.