Author: Michael - page 5

Deciduous Trees

Trees are one of the main structures of the garden. They are available in a range from small and tall growing, bushy and narrow types.Trees provide great benefits to our environment and gardens.

Deciduous trees are ideal for shade in the summer for both the garden and buildings, but will allow the warming winter sun and light through the branches permitting light to enter into the garden and buildings. Constantly changing with the seasons, deciduous trees provide you with interests throughout the year from bare winter branches to spring time blossom and fresh green foliage, then the spectacle autumn colour and foliage before leaf fall.

As trees are the largest and longest lived plant in the garden and tend to have the most impacted on the garden environment, it’s worth taking time when choosing and planting them. SEE PLANTING GUIDE.

Heynes stock a range of beautiful small and advanced trees. Including the a range of small to large, narrow to wide growing trees, together with a select range of standards and weeping trees.

ACER ‘Lipstick Maples’
Acer x freemanii ‘Autumn Blaze’
Acer. rubrum ‘October Glory’


Betula pendula ‘Silver Birch’


Plumeria sp.


Angustifolia Raywood ‘Claret Ash’
Excelsia  Aurea  ‘Golden Ash’


G. biloba


Triacanthos ‘Sunburst’


Triadica sebifera ‘Chinese Tallow’
L. indica


Syringia vulgaris ‘Charles Joly’
Syringia vulgaris “Edward Harding”
Syringia vulgaris ‘Katherine Havemeyer’

MALUS ‘Crap Apple’

M. floribunda
M. loensis ‘Plena’


P. chinensis‘Chinese Pistachio’


P. cerasifera ‘Oakville Crimson Spire’
P. cerasifera ‘Nigra’
P. cerasifera x ‘Bilreana’

PYRUS ‘Ornamental Pear’

P. calleriana ‘Dancer’
P. calleriana ‘Captial’
P. calleriana ‘Chanticleer’
P. ussuriensis ‘Manchurian pear’


R. pseudoacacia  ‘Frisia’


U. glabra ‘Lutescens’ Golden Elm


Malus ‘Ethtermayer (weeping crab )
Morus Alba ‘Pendula’ (Weeping Mulberry)

Deciduous trees can be planted at any time of the year providing that stock is still available at the time needed. Deciduous trees are available for sale in container or as bare root, depending on the season.

BARE ROOTED TREES (Winter Planting Only)

Trees that are for sale as “bare rooted” come in bags with the roots surrounded in damp sawdust/potting mix. The trees are dormant, they have no leaves and are only available in winter (June/July).When selecting bare rooted trees make sure that both the bud union and the stems are healthy and strong.


Trees growing in pots are available for sale all year round and can be planted at any time of the year providing that the weather is not extreme (hot), however it is important to take care of the trees according to the season it is planted.

Please check for seasonality and availability of deciduous trees variety by giving us a call, e-mailing or visiting the Nursery. 


Climbers can be prefect plant for along that narrow fence line or narrow space which is not wide enough to grow a shrubs or tree to cover the space. Select the right climber and not only will climbers provide an assortment of colourful foliage but a brilliant show of flowers and in some cases perfume to go with it. Heynes stock a variety of evergreen and deciduous climber’s.




Evergreen climbers: Bougainvillea sp, Ficus pumila “Climbing Ficus”, Hardenbergia sp, Hedera sp “Ivy”, Hibbertia scandens, Lonicera japonica “Japanese Honeysuckle” Pandorea sp, Pyrostegia venusta “Orange Trumpet Vine”, Rosa banksiae “Banksia Rose white/yellow”, Stephanotis floribunda and Trachelopermum jasinoides “ Star Jasmine”

Deciduous climbers: Parthenocissus tricuspidata “Boston Ivy”,Parthenocissus quinquefolia “Virginia Creeper”,Vitis vinifera “Ornamental Grape Vine”, Wisteria floribunda, Wisteria sinensis “Chinese Wisteria”.




Please check for seasonality and availability of climber’s by giving us a call, e-mailing or visiting the Nursery. 


Please check for seasonality and availability of citrus by giving us a calling, e-mailing or visiting the Nursery.

citrusCitrus are ornamental as well as practical. Not only a beautifully compact tree with glossy green foliage, year around and beautiful scented flowers, citrus will also provide excellent edible fruit. All varieties ripen slowly and can be harvested at leisure over some months. Making citrus, a must for every back yard.

Citrus are generally slow growing tree, requiring a sunning position and frost protection, though most citrus will tolerate light frost. Preferably also a position that is well protected from strong cooling winds.  Citrus have a relatively shallow root system and preferred a light, well drainage soil.

Heynes stock a range of citrus trees which include: Cumquats, Grapefruit, Lemons, Limes, Mandarins and Oranges. The range also included dwarf citrus varieties.


Please check for seasonality and availability of Rose varieties by giving us a call, e-mailing or visiting the Nursery.

Mister Lincoln hybird tea

Roses are a must for any garden lover who has a sunny spot in the garden and Heynes Garden Centre has a large selection for you to choose from.

Roses can be planted at any time of the year providing that stock is still available at the time you need them. However the winter months are still the best time to select from a larger range of roses.Whether you choose bare rooted or container plants make sure that they have strong green canes.

BARE ROOTED ROSES (Winter Planting Only)

Roses that are for sale as “bare rooted” come in bags with the roots surrounded in damp sawdust/potting mix. The roses are dormant, they have no leaves or flowers and are only available in winter (June/July). When selecting bare rooted roses make sure that both the bud union and the stems are healthy and strong. There should be no withered dry stems or long, soft, yellow shoots appearing along the branches.

Roses growing in pots are available for sale all year round and are actively growing with leaves and possibly flowers. Roses grown in containers can be planted at any time of the year providing that the weather is not extreme (hot), however it is important to take care of the rose according to the season it is planted. 


hybird tea

Heynes stock a wide range of roses which include: Hybrid tea, Floribunda, Standard, Climbing, Miniature, Weeping Standards, Groundcovers, David Austin Roses and Delbard Roses.

Hybrid Tea Roses
The most commonly grown rose. Large flowers are borne singularly to a stem, they are supported by long, straight and upright stems. Great for cut flowers. Usually about 1.5m to 2.0m, and up to 1.5m width. 

Floribunda or Cluster Flowered Roses
Small to medium size blooms (Flowers) come in clusters; ideal for massed planting effect. 1m to 2m tall and 1m width.

Standard or Stem Roses

Hybrid Tea, Floribundas, Shrubs or Miniatures are budded onto a single stem of a standard height. Heynes stock 3ft or 900mm tall standards. The rose grows to its usual height on top of the stem. Standard roses give height and allow easy under-planting.

Climbing, Rambling Roses

Long climbing canes, used on walls, fences, pillars and posts, trellises, entrance ways or over an arch. Ramblers are usually only spring flowering, where most climbers repeat their flowers from spring to late autumn.

Miniature Roses

Miniature Roses are roses on a small scale. Miniature roses are great in containers, make lovely borders. Miniatures are grown on their own roots, and come in a range of colours.

freisia floribunda

Weeping Standards

Weeping Pink

Budded onto single 1.5m to 2m tall stem, flowering canes cascade downwards. Making a great specimen plant. Will need rose ring for support.

Ground Covers

Easy and hardy plant. Low spreading plants to 50cm in height. Small flowers in great numbers. 

David Austin Roses 

David Austin, combine the form of flower, fragrance and character of an old rose with the range of colour and repeat flowering characteristics of modern hybrid tea rose and floribunda rose. Height and spread vary enormously.

Delbard Roses

Roses in this collection are intense and individual. Healthy, exquisitely different, delightfully fragrant and free-flowering and variable splashes of colour.


See our BAREROOT LIST for rose variety Heynes stock in winter.

sweet juliet david autinRed Intuition Delbards

Soil Improvers and Mulch


Amgrow All in One Organic Food & Compost 30 lt

COM Organix All in One 30LIdeal for fruit vegetables flowers and garden beds. A blend of organic materials composted with poultry manure to add valuable organic matter to the soil. The addition of Zeolite and Organic Xtra ensures complete garden care both conditioning and nourishing the soil.

  • BFA Certified.
  • Contains Poultry Manure, Composted Seaweed, BioActive Compost, Blood & Bone, Bloom Boosting Potash, NutriPlus Fertiliser, Feather & Fish Meal.

SA Compost 30lt

COM SA Composters 30LPerfect for incorporating into soil prior to planting. Matured compost is a 100% organic soil improver containing primary nutrients as well as trace elements, humus, and humic acids, in a slow release form. Compost improves soil porosity, drainage, aeration and moisture holding capacity at the same time as reducing compaction.

  • Increases water and fertiliser holding capacity.
  • Builds rich living soil.
  • No unpleasant odour.
  • Concentrated by the natural compost process.

Jeffries Veggie and Garden Soil 30lt

COM Jeffries Veggie Garden Soil 30LJeffries Veggie & Garden Soil is perfect for veggie and garden beds. Particularly good for raised beds, this soil mix resists compaction and is high in organic matter.

  • Highest level of organic matter of all Jeffries soils.
  • Open structure, meaning it is a free draining mix and resists compaction (often a problem in raised gardens).
  • Provides plants with vital organic nutrients.
  • Promotes healthy root establishment and growth.

Brunnings Cow Manure 25lt

COM Brunnings Cow Manure 25LCow manure is one of nature’s oldest soil conditioners. It not only improves the structure of the soil but is high in nutrients for healthier trees, shrubs and gardens.
Brunnings Cow Manure is a high quality product. Genuine cow manure, not blended and has been properly composted to minimise smell and improve texture. Ideal for all garden beds.


Neutroge Gypsum 20kg

COM Neutrog Gypsum 20KGGypsum improves the structure and drainage of heavy clay soil, making soil more workable and deceasing the risk of root rot.. Is easy to apply and last several years.

  • Will not affect soil acidity.
  • Fine Form.
  • High natural source of Calcium and Sulphur.
  • Help prevent the build-up of salts in soil.
  • Gypsum can also be used as an additive to compost heaps. Adding gypsum at 1kg per cubic meter will meter will improve the quality of  finished compost.


Brunnings Easy Wetta Mulch 40lt & 70lt

MUL Brunnings Easy Wetta 70LBrunnings Easy Wetta Mulch is a rich organic blend, composted to become a humus based mulch. It improves soil structure, acts as a barrier to sun and evaporation, reduces soil temperature and encourages better root growth.

  • Contains Easy Wetta Soil Wetting Granules to further improve soil structure and enable the soil to hold both water and nutrients longer.

Jeffries Recover Mulch 50lt

MUL Jeffries Recover 50LJeffries Recover Mulch, natural looking mulch full of composted organic matter that will also condition your soil. Will help to suppresses weed growth, improves water retention and insulates plants against extreme temperature.

Peats Soil Pine Chips 56lt

MUL Peats Pine Chips 56LA timber mulch in a very natural golden color. Excellent at keeping the water in plus easy to spread, a great mulch for any garden.

Peats Soil Red Gum Chips 56lt

MUL Peats Red Gum 56LHardwood chip from Eucalyptus calendulenses. Red-brown in colour. Excellent at keeping the water in plus easy to spread.







Farmer Tom’s Pea Straw

Farmer Tom’s Pea Straw is chopped pea straw, it’s an Australian owned and

MUL Farmer Toms Chopped Pea 50Lproduced product. It’s not only easy to handle, but an organic, environmentally conscious way to look after your garden. Perfect for the home vegie garden.
A clean product, free of weeds and contaminants.

  • Chopped pea straw.
  • Australian owned and produced.
  • Use to control weeds and improve soil.

Amgrow Sugar Cane Mulch

Sugar Cane Mulch is prepared from the leaves of sugar cane plants that are chopped. This product has an excellent ability to insulate the soil surface, conserve water and protect the soil and plant roots from extreme temperatures.

  • Certified Organic by NASSA.
  • Recycling of sugar cane leaves as a mulch provides significant environmental benefits.

Pots and Planters

Pots are a fantastic way to add another dimension to the garden. Heynes have a diverse range of quality garden pots, planters and urns that come in a wide range of colours, textures and designs, from, terracotta, glazed garden pots to stone finished pots and large concrete square pots and troughs.

All available in a huge range of shapes, sizes and stunning colours, pots are perfect for creating eye catching displays. Heynes have styles to suit modern and traditional gardens. With lots of different pots available in all different sizes, shapes, textures and colours. Pots can be used as a subtle feature inside or outside the house or make a bold statement with the right pot.

So come in and be inspired by our range of pots, and add some style to the backyard with our colourful and stylises range of indoor and outdoor pots.





Heynes has a range of quality terracotta pots and saucers in a range of sizes. Including:

POTS Plain

Plain Terracotta Pot

POTS Squat

Squat Terracotta Pots

POTS Low Bowl

Low Bowl

POTS Seed Pan

Seed Pan

POTS Herb Bowl

Herb Bowl

POTS Trough


Please check for availability of pots by giving us a call, e-mailing or visiting the Nursery.

Organic Fertiliser’s

Blood and Bone “Yates” 2.5kg, 5kg, 10kg 15kg

FERT YatesBloodBone2.5KG

An organic based fertiliser suitable for all garden plants, including Australian natives. Provides nitrogen for healthy leaf growth and phosphorus for strong root development.

  • 65% pure high quality organic meat meal.
  • Improves soil structure, promotes soil micro-organisms and encourage earthworms.
  • Suitable for all vegies and flowers including exotics and natives.

Professional Blood and Bone “Yates” 2.5kg, 10kg.

FERT YatesBloodBonePRO2.5KG

An organic based fertiliser suitable for all garden plants, including Australian natives. Provides nitrogen for healthy leaf growth and phosphorus for strong root development.
Please note: Ensure you read the label directions and precaution advice when using this product around pets, particularly dogs, as it may be harmful if consumed.

  • 90% pure high quality organic meat meal
  • Includes potash for abundant flowering, improved disease resistance and increased drought tolerance.
  • Suitable for vegies and flowers including exotics and natives.

Blood and Bone “Brunnings” 2.5kg, 5kg or 10kg

brunnings bloodBrunnings Blood and Bone Fertiliser is a traditional organic fertiliser that is suitable for all types of plants, including Australian natives. It releases nutrients slowly and will not burn plants. Recommended for preparing garden beds and planting shrubs, trees and roses.

Dynamic Lifter Organic Plant Food “Yates” 2kg, 7kg or 15kg

FERT YatesDynamicLifter2.5KGA composted chicken manure with added Blood and Bone, fish meal and seaweed to idea for all types of garden and potted plants, including Australian native plants. Releases nutrients slowly, to improve the structure and moisture retention of the soil and encourages earthworms and beneficial soil micro-organisms.

  • Contains, added Blood and Bone, fishmeal and seaweed help to organically enrich and improve the soil.
  • Pelletised easy to apply.

Rapid Raiser “Neutrog” 2.5kg, 10kg, 20kg or 40kg

FERT NeutrogRapidRaiser2.5KGCertified organic product chicken manure in pellet form, ideal for all plants in the garden. Safe to use on native plants and environment friendly.

  • Pellet Form
  • Organic Fertiliser
  • A.C.O registered product

Please note: Ensure you read the label directions and precaution advice when using any of these products.

Phalaenopsis – Moth orchid

A beautiful orchid that will grow and flower quite freely if all its growing conditions are met. With varying shades of white, pink, yellow and green, sometimes striped or spotted they make an excellent gift or magnificent long-lasting display in the home.

Orchid1Growing Conditions

These epiphytic plants are found growing in trees in tropical jungles but will happily grow inside or outside in a purpose built environmentally controlled glasshouse. Creating a glasshouse is for the real enthusiast and needs some research and dedication. By growing the orchids inside on a light airy windowsill, the home gardener can easily create the environment needed for Phalaenopsis. You can create the humidity that the orchids need by placing some gravel in the bottom of a saucer, filling with water and placing the pot on the gravel but not sitting in the water. Of course the higher the temperature the higher the humidity needs to be. At temperatures above 30°c the orchids growth will slow down or stop. Fluctuating temperatures can cause the buds to drop.

Potting Mix and Repotting

Orchid2Choose an open pine bark mix (10-18mm) and repot carefully as the roots can easily be broken. Repot about every 2-3 years by gently removing all the mix from the roots and cutting off any dead or damaged roots. It is quite normal for roots to grow out of the pot. The best time for repotting is just after flowering and before the main growth season in spring and summer. Placing sphagnum moss on top of the pot will aid in water retention especially during the warmer months.


Regular watering is essential for healthy growth. How often depends on the potting media used and the temperature. On average every 3 days in the heat of summer, but if your mix has a lot of sphagnum moss it will need watering less. Phalaenopsis need watering when just starting to dry out but do not like to be constantly wet. With time you will get to know your orchid and its watering needs.


Orchid4Feed weekly during the warmer months with liquid fertilisers recommended for orchids. Once the weather starts to cool you can cut back to every fortnight.






Bare Root Trees

bareroottreeWinter is a great time for planting. Getting plants in the ground at this time of year gives trees plenty of time to establish before the hot summer and the long awaited bare rooted plants are available. During winter, trees that have been field grown are dug up when they’re dormant, and sold, ready for planting. Deciduous bare-rooted fruit and ornamentals trees are only available in winterJune, July and August. With so many new and dwarf varieties of bare rooted trees available, there is no excuse not to get planting.

See Heynes list for varieties of Bare-root Fruit and Ornamental.

When selecting a bare rooted plant, try to ensure there is no obvious physical damage and look for a good, even branch structure. As most fruit and ornamental trees in nursery are grafted also look for a strong graft. Don’t leave the trees sitting round for extended period of time, and remember the roots of these plants need to stay moist from the point when dug out of the ground until planting time. In Australian bare root trees should be planted over the June to September months and should be in the ground by the time trees bring to “shoot”.



At planting time it is recommend to prune, because when the trees are dug, the roots are pruned, and for a balanced tree the tops should be pruned to balance the root size. Trees can be cut back to about 1/3 in an even manner to an outwards face bud, use clean secateurs. To encourage a nice branching habit or vase shape for fruit trees remove the leader.

Dig a hole around twice as wide as the root ball. To allow the trees roots to spread the inside of the hole should have nice, rough edges, to ensure the effective movement of water and air. Thoroughly mix the soil from the hold with plenty of gypsum and some SA compost, then put a good shovel of gypsum into the bottom of the hole and flock in through.Remove any grass within a meter circular area.

Before planting remove any diseased, or even damaged, roots. Spread the roots out in a natural position. It can help to mound a pile of soil at the base to support the root system. Plant the tree at the same level as when it was originally in the ground, at the base. So to help minimize the risk of disease, issues like collar rot. The graft/bud should be above the soil level, the exception bring lilacs.

Back fill the hole, lightly firm the soil, make a well around the base of tree and water in. You’ve planted a bare root tree!


PlantingBareRootWater as needed however do not overwater. Consistent watering is important in the dry months. No need to fertilise until the tree starts growing in spring. (If you feel inclined to, add a small amount of fertilise at time of planting).

If the tree is bit loose or has been planted in high wind area, loosely stake it until the tree is established. Place two stakes in the ground, one both side of the tree well away the root zone and loosely tie the tree to the stakes with a soft tie around the trunk of the tree.



Although they have a limited place in small home gardens, poplars are among the most attractive and useful trees for large scale ornamental and commercial landscape work. They are hardy, quick growing trees with uniform symmetrical outlines and distinct foliage effects.

Columnar varieties make excellent avenues, screens and windbreaks, whilst the broader growing trees provide shade and shelter.

Development work in both breeding and grafting techniques has seen a range of non-suckering trees for almost any commercial landscape application.

P. alba bolleana Medium size tree, columnar in shape. Foliage is dark green with silver reverse, turning bright gold in autumn. Generally resistant to leaf rust. Silver poplars sucker freely and should only be planted where this is not going to cause problems.

P. candicans Balm of Gilead. A medium sized ornamental shade tree with broad green leaves. The swelling buds emit a strong and pleasant balsam fragrance in spring.

P. deltoides “Evergreen Hybrid”:- also known as “W.A. Hybrid”. A beautiful pyramidal shaped tree, with bright green medium sized heart shaped leaves. An excellent tree for windbreaks, screens and avenue planting. Semi-evergreen and generally rust resistant. Highly recommended. (Trees grafted onto non-suckering root stocks are available).

P. deltoids “Cottonwood”:- This recently introduced cottonwood grows quickly into a large, handsome, ornamental shade tree. The heart shaped leaves appear to be completely immune to leaf rust. (Trees grafted onto non-suckering root stocks are available).

P. nigra italica   This well-known Lombardy poplar is the proven quick growing, tall avenue or windbreak tree. Distinctive both in and out of leaf, the golden foliage in autumn is spectacular. Commonly planted around orchards, vineyards and property boundaries, suckering has been a problem in some circumstances. To alleviate this problem we have developed a technique to compatibly graft this tree onto non-suckering root stock. Limited supplies of grafted trees are available this year, however we should be in a position to supply much larger quantities in 2000. Good supplies of non-grafted trees are held.

P. italica “Chile”   This evergreen form of the Lombardy poplar has proven to be rapid growing, hardy, tolerant of heat and strong winds. Large numbers are used as shelter belts around Riverland orchards and vineyards. It is susceptible to leaf rust and is recommended for districts where this is not a problem. Grafted trees only available.

P. serotina aurea  Golden poplar. One of the best known and most beautiful of the poplars. The medium size heart shaped leaves have a golden colour in spring and autumn. The tree is medium to large in size and narrowly pyramidal becoming broader as it matures. It tolerates hot conditions if adequate water is provided. Recommended for areas where leaf rust is not a problem.

P. simonii fastigiata Upright Simon poplar. A columnar to narrowly pyramidal non-suckering tree growing to some 10 metres high and 2-3 metres wide. An excellent tree for avenues, screens, driveways and windbreaks, which has proved hardy in nearly all districts. This is a particularly versatile and useful tree with a very short dormant period.

P. szechuanica tibetica This Chinese tree has been described as the most ornamental of all the poplars. It has very large heart shaped leaves with prominent red veins and leaf stalks. The young foliage is coloured in shades of copper and red. It makes a shapely medium sized tree, and although hardy, is best sheltered from strong winds.

P. x Tasman  This new hybrid has come to us with an excellent reputation. It is a strong grower, upright in habit, and is one of the quickest windbreak providers. The green-gold foliage is beautiful in spring and changes to bright green in summer.

P. yunnanensis Yunnan Poplar. A beautiful medium to large shade tree. It is semi-evergreen in mild climates, is rust resistant and does not sucker. We have no hesitation in recommending this tree for larger properties.

P. x 65/31 Bryant and May. Another new hybrid of exceptional vigour having been bred primarily for timber production. It makes a tall, narrowly pyramidal tree and in commercial plantations has attained a height of 26 metres in 8 years. It is rust resistant, hardy and has shiny dark green foliage. A very good substitute for the Lombardy poplar in areas where rust may be a problem. Trees grafted onto non-suckering root stocks are available.

P. x 74/31 This is a handsome tree of great vigour, columnar to narrowly pyramidal with dense deep green foliage. It appears to be sucker free and the foliage immune to rust. We recommend it for large scale landscape work.

P. x euramericana “Veronese” & P. deltoides x yunnanensis “Kawa”:– Two new hybrids that have been bred in New Zealand as windbreak trees. Both are recommended by the larger Victorian growers, however our first hand experience is limited. P. Veronese appears to be the more vigorous of the two and more upright in habit.



Poisonous Plants

NAME                    TOXIC PART       EFFECTS

Apricots                       Kernels                     Cyanide poisoning

Asparagus Fern          Entire plant               Seizures

Azalea                         Entire plant               Muscle paralysis

Bird of Paradise          Seeds & pods           Vomiting & diarrhoea


Pond Plants

Please check for seasonality and availability by giving us a calling, e-mailing or visiting the Nursery.


pondplants07 MarsileaPonds create peaceful and relaxing environments that help cool the air on a hot summer’s day. A place to relax, be inspired, or to entertain family and friends. A range of plants will give you the right balance for crystal clear water, creating habitat for a variety of creatures such as fish, frogs and even dragon flies. Your own mini ecosystem in the backyard.

Water gardens can be large or small. They can be a real feature in a beautiful glazed pot, on a balcony or a versatile way of bringing inspiration and tranquility into the renter’s garden.

No need to weed, mulch or compost. Apart from some seasonal maintenance and the occasional water top up, all you need to do is sit back, relax, and enjoy the peace of your own backyard water feature.

N – Denotes Native Plant

pondplants06E – Denotes Evergreen  

D – Denotes Deciduous  

SD –  Denotes Semi Deciduous

Waterlilies nymphaea – Hardy – not available in winter

Prefers to grow in 45cm of water or up to 1.8m deep. Will tolerate some shade for part of the day, but requires 5 hours of sun for best flowering results. Comes in apricot, pink, red, white and yellow. Dies down in winter.

Lotus – Nelumbo nucifera (N) – pink – available from October to march

Submerged Aquatic plants

growing lilies potAponogeton distachyos- Water Hawthorn – avail winter

An attractive plant with white perfumed flowers and dark green strap-like floating leaves. It loves the cold & is good for Winter coverage. It is one of the few water plants to flower at this time. The plant can go dormant in warmer weather. Prefers semi-shade 20-40cms deep.

Ceratophyllum demersum (N) – Hornwort – E

A quick growing, rootless floating plant. Will develop roots if planted. Will grow in sun to shade. Being a fast grower it  can take up nutrients quickly making it a good competitor with algae.

Hydrocleys nymphoides – Water Poppy – D

A spreading water plant with oval to round leaves and yellow flowers in late spring into summer. Prefers full sun but will grow in shade. Up to 40cms deep

Ludwigia nutans – Water Primrose – E

Fast growing as a marginal, partially or fully submersed. Will creep across the water. Foliage becomes redder the higher the light levels.

pondplants01Marsilea mutica (N) – SD

Very attractive light green to rustic brown clover-like leaves that float on the water’s surface. Submerge pot in water up to 60cm deep. Will grow in semi-shade to full sun. Dies down in winter.

Marsilea drummondi (N) – SD

An attractive pond plant with attractive four-leaf clover like foliage which floats on or just above the water. Plant no deeper than 30-60cm

Myriophyllum  variifolium(N) – E

A vigorous native with dark green plumes on stems which trail across the water surface. Leaves can vary in shape & tip growth is highlighted with small pink-red buds & flowers in Spring/Summer. Ideal for protection & spawning of fish. Submerge 0-40cm deep. Prefers full sun to semi-shade.

Nymphoides geminate(N) – Fringe Flower – E

Attractive fully submersible plant with small round floating leaves. Star-shaped yellow flowers stand just above the water in summer. Submerge in water to 40cm deep. Frost tolerant

pondplants02Ranunculus inundatas(N) – E

Perennial herb that grows in wet mud, ponds or streams with leaves floating or submerged. Grows to 30cms. Has finely divided leaves and small yellow flowers in Spring/Summer. Loves a moist position or can be submerged to 20cm deep.

Villarsia reniformis(N) – Marsh Flower – E

Large kidney shaped leaves with yellow flowers on stems to 50cms. Will grow in boggy soils or ponds to 40cm deep where leaves float on the water surface.

Vallisnera spiralis(N) –Ribbon weed – E

Grass like plant with thick or thin leaves. Provides shelter for aquatic life. 20-40cms deep.


Marginal Plants

Creepers for shallow water

Bacopa monniera(N) – Water Hyssop – not available in winter

A creeping herb with small white flowers in summer and autumn.  Water Hyssop is an excellent plant for shallow and deeper ponds. Medicinally it is used to help with memory. To 40cms deep

pondplants03Crassula helmsii(N) –Swamp Stonecrop – E

Swamp crassula is a fast growing perennial.  This creeping plant forms dense mats of bright green small leaves & cream flowers from Spring to Summer.  It is ideal in shallow water or a moist position.

Myriophyllum  Creeper – D – Upright Water Milfoil

A very attractive plant with bright green feather like emergent foliage. Ideal for spawning & protection of fish. Submerge plant in water 20 to 40cms deep. Will grow in semi-shade to full sun.


Water Iris –  Various colours – Available spring and summer

Comes in a variety of colours – yellow, purple, white, bronze-red and flower in the Spring. Require only shallow water.


Lower growing marginal

Acorus calamus – D

A decorative hardy evergreen plant with glossy dark green iris-like leaves approximately 60-100cm tall.  It prefers a moist position or shallow water up to 15cm deep. It is ideal for pot watergardens.


Medium growing marginal

planta de myriophyllum aquaticum1[1]Mentha aquatica   – Water Mint – D

A perennial edible herb that grows to 1m.  It has heart-shaped toothed leaves with a strong mint scent & violet flowers in summer.  It prefers a semi-shaded position in moist to wet soils.

Saururus cernuus– Lizard Tail – D

Lizard’s tail or water-dragon, is a rhizomatous, deciduous, marginal aquatic perennial that typically grows to 60-120cms  tall in its natural habitat. In cultivation, it will grow to about 30- 60cms tall. Plant 15-20cms deep. Will also grow in shallow water or in moist, boggy soils. Best in full sun to part shade, but will flower in full shade.

Pontederia cordata– Pickeral Rush – D

Attractive plant with heart shaped, shiny green leaves and small blue flowers in spring and summer. Grows up to 60cm in height & in water up to 30cm deep. Must be moist at all times.Will grow in part shade to full sun.

Triglochin procera(N) – Water Ribbon – E

Wetland plant with long, slender strap-like leaves floating on the water’s surface. Can grow up to 2mtrs long. Will grow in shallow water in part shade to full sun. Erect flower spike is greenish-yellow to 30cm. Immerse the pot completely in pond so that the leaves float on the surface. Frost tolerant.


Tall growing marginal

pondplants03Colocasia esculenta– Taro – Edible – D

Moist to wet soils in full sun to part shade, however in the hot summers do best in part shade. A large, showy, marginal plant with heart-shaped, dark green leaves, taro can reach 5 feet tall and is often grown as a summer annual. Divide in winter or early spring.

Thalia dealbata – Asian Canna – D

Thalia dealbata is a vigorous aquatic plant. It can be planted in the pond, container or the bog garden. Prefers to grow in full sun. Grows about 1.2 to 1.8m

Zantedeschia aethiopica – White Arum Lily – E

Zantedeschia aethiopica minor – Mini White Arum Lily – E    Good in winter

Usually found in seasonally damp places. Known as Arum lilies or Calla lilies, they are a popular cut flower which can be fragrant.

Lythrum salicaria – Purple Loosestrife – D

Hardy, clump forming perennial growing up to 90cms. Will grow in part shade to full sun. Flowers are slender pinkish-mauve spikes.


Grasses and Sedges

pondplants08Acorus calamus – D

A decorative hardy evergreen plant with glossy dark green iris-like leaves approximately 60-100cm tall.  It prefers a moist position or shallow water up to 15cm deep. It is ideal for pot water gardens.

calamus variegatus – D

Variegated sweet flag is a deciduous, aquatic perennial with metre long bright green leaves with creamy, longitudinal stripes. Its flowers are insignificant, but its leaves are aromatic.

Baumea articulate(N) –Bamboo Reed – E

This is attractive native sedge which grows up to 2m in height in water up to 1m deep in full sun to semi-shade. It has drooping flowers/seed heads in summer and bamboo-like stems on older growth.  It is excellent for water features and makes a valuable habitat for water birds.

Baumea juncea(N) – Twig Rush –  E

Perennial spreading sedge with creeping rhizomes from which new vertical stems arise. 0.2-1.2m high. It forms dense colonies therefore is a good soil stabiliser. Prefers light soils with fairly constant moisture such as creeks, floodways, bogs, lake edges and even seasonally saline water.

Bolboschoenus caldwelli – Sea Club Rush – D

Erect perennial semi-aquatic plant growing 30-90cms that dies down in winter. Good bird habitat for saltmarshes and wetlands.

Carex appressar(N) –E

Dense tufted grass-like sedge semi aquatic. Grows well in water ways with occasional inundation. .5 -1.2m shade tolerant.

Cyperus alternifolius – Umbrella Grass – E

Umbrella Grass has graceful dark green, umbrella-like heads up to 1m in height. Will grow larger in a full sun position than in a partially shaded spot. position. It is frost tolerant and will grow happily on pond edges or submersed to 40cms.

– gymnocaulos (N) –Spiky Rush –  E

pondplants09 Thalia dealbataPerennial, clumping sedge, 0.35-1m high. Excellent soil stabiliser and oxygenator for sediment which in turn assists essential microbial activity. Grows on edge of ponds, bogs, waterways fresh or saline. Moderately salt tolerant but will not tolerate inundation for long.

 – papyrus – Egyptian – D

Cyperus Papyrus is a tall sedge (1.5 – 2.4m) from ancient Egyptians. It is a very popular plant & does well at the waters edge or in a boggy ground.  Its leafless triangular stems are topped with a dense head of fine branchlets. It prefers full sun and a mild climate.

– haspan – Small – D

A grass like plant with delicate slim leaves and flower spikes which give an umbrella like appearance. In warm climates it will need constant moisture or submerse the pot in the pond. Full sun is preferred in winter, but will take semi-shade through our hot summers.  Decorative marginal plant growing to 1m.

Eleocharis acuta(N) –D

A  wetland plant to 60cm tall, forming dense stands of upright cylindrical stems.
Used by waterbirds for nesting material and the seeds as a food source.
Prefers shallow water 10-30cm deep.

Gahnia filum(N)  – E – Chaffy Saw Sedge

A tussock-forming perennial with flat grassy leaves and brown flower spikes in spring and summer. Grows in coastal saltmarshes and wetlands and attracts moths and butterflies. Height about 1-1.5metres.

Ficinea  nodosa(N) –Knobby Club Rush – E

Popular plant for planting around pond margins. A fast growing perennial plant that forms clumps of upright, arching, dark green stems.  Brownish, globular flower heads are formed on the ends of the stems through the year.  It is a tough, hardy plant which thrives in full sun in a range of soils.  It tolerates waterlogging, salt spray and saline soils. It adds texture and colour to seaside gardens, ponds and water features.  It can also be used for general garden planting.


Water Plant Hardy Lily Red 1024x768[1]Juncus pallidus – Pale Rush – E

A tall rush growing 1.5-2m. This drought and frost tolerant erect tussock has dull green stems which produce pale flower heads. It prefers moist to wet soils in sun or shade.

Lepidosperma  longitudinale(N) – E

Fast growing sedge up to 2m with a shallow, spreading root system. Prefers a sunny position and occurs in salty estuarine rivers and swamps. A good bog plant for stabilising soil and providing habitat for smaller fauna especially frogs and birds. Will tolerate some inundation.

Miscanthus sinensis  –  zebrinus – bog plant

Useful as a specimen, in the border, or for mass planting As foliage dries and turns a light tan shade for the winter, trim to the ground in late winter or early spring. Divide clumps in spring before new growth appears. Height 180-240 cm .

Cladium(N) –Saw Sedge – E

pondplants10 vallisneria giganteaGrows in boggy areas and lakesides. It can be up to 2.5 metres tall, and has leaves with hard serrated edges and flowering stems 1–3 m tall bearing a much-branched inflorescence.

Schoenoplectus albescens– D- Candy Stripe Rush

A tall rush to 1.5m, with alternating cream & green stripes along the length of its cylindrical leaves. Plant to a depth of 20cm in pond or in permanently moist soil in a sunny to partly shaded position.

Restio tetraphyllus– Tassel Rush – E-bog plant

Hardy  rush up to 1.5m tall. Unusual bright green, finely divided feathery stems with brown flower spikes in spring and summer. Will grow in part shade to full sun. Prefers moist cool position to shallow water with some shade. Good cut flower (foliage). Frost tolerant. Attractive container plant.



White sandy beaches, crystal clear water, tropical fruits and cloudless blue skies as far as the eye can see. We may not all be able to enjoy this tropical paradise but with a few wise plant choices you can transform your own garden into an Oasis. There is a range of palms to suit most situations, from the garden to potted specimens for indoors. A tall stately Bangalow is an impressive addition to any garden. With the right soil preparation and good summer watering you can enjoy the tropical lifestyle without leaving your back yard.

Archontophoenix cunninghamiana
Bangalow Palm, Piccabeen Palm
Australia (Queensland, N.S.W.)
Height: Up to 15m.

Graceful fern-like fronds 2-3m long, with green undersides in contrast to the Alexandra Palm’s silver undersides. The trunk is smooth and straight, ringed by scars of fallen leaves, with a rusty scurf coating the base. In autumn it produces pendulous panicles of shell pink flowers.
Can be grown as an indoor plant, tolerating slightly darker conditions than the Alexandra Palm. As an outdoor plant it tolerates slightly cooler conditions but is still unsuitable for growing in the Adelaide hills. It requires regular watering in summer to be at its best.

Chamaedorea elegans,

Chamaedorea eleganssyn. Neanthe bella, Collinia elegans
Parlour Palm, Mexican Dwarf Palm
Mexico, Central America
Height: Up to 2m high, more commonly 1m.

A graceful slow growing small palm that becomes multi-stemmed with age. Bears insignificant yellow-green flowres on long stalks, female plants bearing small black fruit on orange panicules. An ideal indoor plant, the Parlour Palm can take less light than most indoor plants and can tolerate a reasonable degree of neglect. Fertilise in the warmer months and water well in summer.

Chamaedorea seifrizii 

Bamboo Palm
Height: Up to 2m

Small palm with clustering cane like stems with broadly spread pinnate fronds.
Can be used as an indoor plant, but requires more light than the Parlour Palm. It is also more sun tolerant, and can withstand a moderate degree of cold. Fertilise regularly to promote bushiness.

Dypsis lutescens

Golden Cane Palm, Butterfly Palm
Madagascar, Mauritius
Height: 2-10m.

This palm thrives in the warm coastlines of the tropics, where it is larger and more robust than in temperate regions. It makes an excellent potted specimen growing to about 2 metres. If grown outside it will need protection from the hot sun and the cold winters, and may not always look its best. A dense clustering palm with arching feathery fronds and golden/green stems. Often used as an indoor plant, requiring good, indirect light.

Howea forsteriana

Kentia Palm, Thatch Palm, Sentry Palm
Lord Howe Island
Height: 3-9m.

Graceful, pinnate fronds to 2m, with glossy, fern-like arching fronds above a tall slender trunk. It bears yellow-green, olive shaped fruit in heavy clusters. It makes an excellent indoor plant . As an outdoor plant, it is most effective when planted in clusters. Somewhat slow growing, it enjoys warm climates, prefers a moist well drained soil and can withstand coastal conditions. Can be grown on the Adelaide plains, but not outdoor in the Adelaide hills. Prefers a shady position when young.

Phoenix roebelenii

Dwarf Date Palm, Pygmy Date Palm,
Laos, Vietnam and southern China
Height: 1m to 3m in ideal conditions, width similar.

An attractive small palm for a sunny to partially shaded position in the garden or pot. Long arching deep green fronds atop a short rough stem. Will perform better with some regular summer watering. A great palm for creating a tropical feel around pools and smaller gardens.

Rhapis excelsa

Lady Palm, Miniature Fan Palm
Southern China and Taiwan
Height: Up to 4.5m

A beautiful palm forming a dense multi-stemmed plant with dark glossy green fronds, deeply divided into 3-8 finger like segments. An excellent indoor palm for low light situations. For outdoor cultivation, the Lady Palm prefers a warm climate with some shade – the leaves may burn if in full sun. A slow growing palm which makes it ideal for container gardening. Will tolerate some dryness but prefers regular watering in the warmer months.

Syagrus romanzoffiana

syn. Cocos plumosa
Cocos Palm, Queen Palm
Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia,South America
Height: 12-21m.

The grey trunk is smooth and upright. The arching plume like fronds reach 1-5m long and are a soft, dark shiny green. The flowers are insignificant, but it produces edible orange-red dates which can attract bats and insects. Can self seed readily if the flower stems are not removed. It is not self-cleaning.
Can be grown in cooler climates than many palms. It is one of the hardier palms for cultivation in the Melbourne and Adelaide areas. They prefer fertile, moist, well-drained soil in full sun or semi-shade.

Trachycarpus fortunei

Chinese Windmill Palm, Chusan Palm
Northern Myanmar to Central China
Height: 7m to 10m in ideal conditions

An extremely cold tolerant slow growing palm which prefers cooler, temperate areas in full sun. It must have good drainage as it can suffer from root rot if too wet, but regular watering in summer will produce a more robust plant. As the palm ages it produces a trunk covered with dense brown fibers and large metre wide dark green fan shaped fronds. These large leaves can become quite tatty if in a windy exposed site. It is not self-cleaning so will have a skirt of dead branches hanging under the uppermost fronds.

These palms are occasionally available:

Archontophoenix alexandrae
Alexandra Palm
Australia (Queensland)
Height: Up to 15m.

An elegant palm with arching fern-like fronds 3-3.5m long; the silver-grey underside of the leaves catches light beautifully. Cream flowers appear mostly in autumn.
Thrives in wet, tropical climates, and can be grown indoors in a well-lit situation. Can be grown outdoors in the Adelaide plains, but will not tolerate the colder winters of the Adelaide hills.

Dypsis decaryi

Triangular Palm, Three-Cornered Palm
Height: 4 – 6m

This palm is particularly noted for its trunk, which is triangular in the cross section. It is generally short and stout and ringed with scars from fallen fronds. The pale, greyish-green fronds can grow up to 2.5m long.They prefer a tropical or subtropical climate and full sun, but may be planted in more temperate climate including the Adelaide plains and Perth. They must have well drained soil with regular watering in the warmer months.  They will tolerate sandy soils and brief periods of dryness particularly if planted in a shadier spot.

Ravenea rivularis

Majestic Palm
Height: up to 30m in ideal conditions

A very tall palm with a thick trunk that takes full sun but will tolerate low light and cool conditions. It needs good summer watering and magnesium to keep the fronds green.


Cycads revoluta
Cycas revolutaSago Palm, Sago cycad, Japanese Sago Palm
Southern Japan
Height: 2-3m

A very slow growing plant that will eventually develop a stem. The fronds have narrow, densely packed, spine tipped leaflets and are a deep green. Can be single or multi stemmed.
Grows happily in the shade as long as it is not too wet, but will also tolerate a full sun position. Prefers a tropical to sub-tropical climate, but will grow quite easily in Adelaide, although it will be slower. All parts of the plant are poisonous especially to animals. Makes a good pot specimen.

Zamia furfuracea

Cardboard cycad, Cardboard Palm
Height: 1.3m x 2m

Slower growing when young this plant has tough fern like leaves that radiate from the centre. They will grow in the full sun or part shade in well-drained soil, and are quite salt and drought tolerant, but do not like the extreme cold. Grows well in a pot. All parts are poisonous.

Beaucarnea recurvata

Ponytail Palm
Height: Up to 4.5m

A very slow growing evergreen plant with a single stem, a bulbous base, which stores water, and tufty grass-like leaves on top. Grows in full sun to part shade, needs excellent drainage and minimal watering. Drought tolerant. Makes a great container specimen indoors or out.

Please check for availability by giving us a call, emailing or visiting the nursery.


Magnolia01Magnolias can be both Deciduous and Evergreen with many different species. They both have beautiful big fragrant flowers in spring, in a range of colours from white, pink, burgundy and yellow. The deciduous variety flower before the leaves appear in spring, which makes quite a statement in the garden. The deciduous magnolia is more cold tolerant than the evergreen variety. From shrubs to trees, there is a Magnolia for every garden size and situation.



DENUDATA: Large pure cream perfumed flower. Broad spreading small tree to about 5-6m.

LILIIFLORA Nigra (Purple Lily Magnolia): Dwarf. Suitable for small & average sized gardens, with shrubby, erect growth. The flowers have the deepest purple outer surface, and are white within. 2m wide x 3m high in 10 years.

LOEBNERI Leonard Messell: Large shrub or small tree. Attractive fuchsia-purple buds open to a lovely pink, star-shaped flower. The darkest star-shaped flower. The darkest star-shaped flower to date. 2.5m wide x 2.5m high in 10 years.

SOULANGIANA Alba Superba: Small tree. Beautiful tulip-shaped flowers, white, faint pink flush at base. 2m wide x 2.5m high in 10 years.

SOULANGIANA Brozzonnii: Late flowering, white candle-like buds. Faint pink flush at base. 2.5m wide x 3.5m high in 10 years.

SOULANGIANA Burgundy Glow: Spreading small tree. Deep pinkish-purple and white tulip shaped flowers. Mid spring flowering. Fragrantly perfumed. 2.5m wide x 3.5m high in 10 years.

SOULANGIANA Lennei Alba: Outstandingly beautiful form of the Lennei Magnolia with immense globular flowers of pure creamy white. 2m wide x 2.5m high in 10 years.

SOULANGIANA Pink: Beautiful purplish-pink and white tulip shaped flowers. Early spring flowering and fragrantly perfumed. The original classic. 2.5m wide x 3m high in 10 years.

SOULANGIANA Rustica Rubra: Excellent Magnolia, vigorous grower with deep red-purple goblet shaped flowers. 2.5m wide x 3.5m high in 10 years.

SOULANGIANA San Jose: Large, rosy purple and white flowers and a vigorous growth habit make it an excellent magnolia. 3m wide x 4m high in 10 years.

STELLATA (Star Magnolia): Multi-branched, compact bush. Pure white star-shaped flowers in profusion. Excellent for smaller gardens or tubs. 1.5m wide x 1.5m high in 10 years.

STELLATA Rosea: Multi-branched compact bush. Pink in bud. The star-shaped flowers open to a light pink and fade to almost white as they age. Excellent for the smaller garden or tubs. 1.5m wide x 1.5m high in 10 years.

X BALLERINA: Small compact bush, heavily branched. Free flowering fragrant star-shaped flowers with white petals flushed pink at the base. An excellent magnolia for the smaller garden. 1.5m wide x 1.5m high in 10 years.

x ELIZABETH: A deciduous shrub or small tree that has sweetly scented lemon yellow flowers in early spring, borne before the plant comes into leaf. 2.5m wide x 3m high in 10 years.

x GALAXY: Beautiful, showy, upright grower with exceptionally strong branches. Large dappled red-purple blooms. Mid season flowering. One of the best new magnolias. Suited to smaller gardens and tubs. 2m wide x 3m high in 10 years.

x HEAVEN SCENT: Vigorous small , erect tree, large, fragrant flowers, dappled pinkish lavender. A very beautiful new form. 2m wide x 3m high in 10 years.

x IOLANTHE: Beautiful new introduction. Huge cup and saucer flowers of clear pink outside and white inside. Vigorous grower. 4m high x 4m wide in 10 years.

x JANE: A new compact variety, beautifully shaped fragrant flowers, with a red-purple outer surface, and white inner surface. Excellent for smaller gardens or tubs. 1.5m wide x 1.5m high in 10 years.

x LILLIPUTIAN: Beautiful mauve and white blooms on a compact bush. Flowers as the classic soulangiana Pink, but much slower growing. Ideal for the smaller garden. 1.5m wide x 2m high in 10 years.

x PINKIE: Beautiful pale red-purple flowers with a white inner surface. Plant of compact rounded habit, flowering in late spring. Excellent for smaller gardens and tubs. 1.5m wide x 1.5m high in ten years.

x PRISTINE: Small upright tree. Flowers are pure white and are held upright on branchlets as with M. denudata. A compact and very desirable magnolia. 1.5m wide x 2m high in 10 years.

x RICKY: Red-purple flowers that twist unusually. Very compact habit. Excellent for smaller gardens. 2m wide x 2.5m high in 10 years.

x ROYAL CROWN: Outstanding large, red-violet flowers held upright. A free flowering vigorous grower. Flowers sparsely in early spring, followed by a strong main flush, then easing in late spring. Extremely long flowering period. 2.5m wide x 3m high in 10 years.

x SERENE: Small upright pyramidal tree with cup or bowl shaped flowers that are held erect. The short broad petals are bright rose. Flowers at an early age. 2.5m wide x 3m high in 10 years.

x STAR WARS: Huge showy soft pink flowers, very dark red in bud. Vigorous grower. 4m wide x 4m high in 10 years.


Magnolia Susan1x SUSAN: Compact, vigorous hybrid that develops into a beautifully fragrant, free flowering large bush or small tree. Deep pink flowers of 6 petals held erect at first, and later flattening into a star shape. Excellent for smaller gardens or shrubs. 2m wide x 2.5m high in 10 years.



MAGNOLIA GRANDIFLORA: A large specimen tree for parks or bigger gardens. Can reach a height of 25m x 10m. Large white cup-shaped flowers adorn this tree from spring into summer, against the backdrop of the glossy green leaves with a brown velvety underside. Requires organic, well-drained soils with good summer watering. Tolerates pollution.

MAGNOLIA GRANDIFLORA ‘LITTLE GEM’: A smaller growing magnolia reaching about 4m high by 2.5m. With its large cream fragrant flowers in spring and summer, and the rusty brown undersides of the large glossy green leaves, it is a show stopper in any large or small garden. Little Gem prefers a composted, well-drained soil in a sunny position, but will thrive if given some late afternoon shade. Regular deep watering in summer and a good mulch is essential for a healthy robust tree.

MAGNOLIA GRANDIFLORA ‘KAY PARRIS’: Similar to ‘Little Gem’ in height, although slightly wider. These plants differ in that Kay Parris flowers are larger, the leaves have a wavy edge and the new growth is bright pink. Enjoys the same conditions as ‘Little Gem’.

MAGNOLIA GRANDIFLORA ‘TEDDY BEAR’: Another beautiful small specimen tree to 4m similar to Little Gem, but has slightly turned up leaves which gives it a more compact appearance. Also enjoys the same conditions as ‘Little Gem’.

Please check for availability by giving us a call, emailing or visiting the nursery.


Ferns create a beautiful, lush tropical feel to your garden. A great place to relax and unwind after a hot summers day. Given the right conditions ferns can grow well in our climate. There are many different ferns available. From low growing varieties, tall tree ferns, plants suitable for hanging baskets and for growing indoors. Ferns need a shady spot with protection from strong winds and frost. A well composted, friable, slightly acidic soil covered with thick mulch is ideal. By implementing a good watering system, your fern garden will thrive all year round. Ferns can make even the hottest day feel cooler.


Adiantum  – Maidenhair Ferns

maidenhairfern01Finely foliaged, evergreen plants that grow from underground rhizomes. Maidenhairs need to be kept moist, like a very shaded position outside and a brightly lit position indoors. Keep away from draughts and feed regularly with a weak fertiliser solution, such as Powerfeed or Nitrosol. If Maidenhairs dry out their fronds will very quickly go brown. Remarkably though they can come back from what looks like certain death. There are hundreds of species of this attractive plant, but only a small selection is regularly available.

Adiantum aethiopicum – Common Maidenhair Fern
|Spreading clumps of fronds to 45cms found growing by creeks and open forests. Fairly easy to grow inside or out, in hanging baskets or terrariums.

Adiantum fulvum – New Zealand Maidenhair

Erect fronds to 30cms. Hardy fern for indoors or in the shade outside.

Adiantum hispidulum – Rough Maidenhair Fern

Hardy slower growing fern to 55cms. New growth is pink turning green. Found in rocks, rainforests or open forests. More tolerant of sun and drying out than other Maidenhairs.

Adiantum raddianum  ‘Elegans’ – Fine Maidenhair

Erect spreading fern to 50cms. Will grow in shady gardens or indoors.

Adiantum raddianum ‘Fragrans’

Probably the most widely grown Maidenhairs. An excellent plant for indoors.

Adiantum raddianum  ‘Pacific Maid’

Hardy erect fern with large leaflets and black stems. Grows indoors or outside in the shady garden.


Asplenium – Spleenworts

hmBirdsnestfernA large grouping of highly variable ferns that require a cool shady position with ample water and humidity. Hardiness can vary from plant to plant, many being frost tender. Spread by rhizomes and rarely developing a trunk, growing mostly from a single crown. Many species are epiphytic. (A plant that grows upon another plant i.e. a tree and gets its moisture and nutrients from the air, rain, and sometimes from debris accumulating around and in it. They use their host tree for physical support but do not necessarily harm them like parasitic plants do).

Asplenium australasicum – Bird’s Nest Fern
A hardy reliable native that can grow in trees, on rocks, in pots or in the soil. Its large fronds emerge from its central stem and can reach a diameter of 3metres. It likes plenty of moisture but must have good drainage to avoid rotting off. Tolerates moderate frosts and filtered sunlight. Makes an excellent container plant for indoors or outdoors.

Asplenium australasicum cristatum – Crested Bird’s Nest Fern

Similar to the Birds Nest Fern but has unusual crests at the ends of the fronds that grow to a metre. Shade loving, great in a pot and tolerant of dryish positions.

Asplenium australasicum lasagne – Lasagne Bird’s Nest Fern

This Bird’s Nest fern has lovely wavy edges looking just like wavy edge lasagne. Hence the name. Grows to about 1 metre.

Asplenium australasicum nidus – Bird’s Nest Fern

A tropical Bird’s Nest preferring warm humid conditions. Will perform better if grown in a glasshouse or indoors.


Blechnum  – Water Ferns

Most species tend to have very short creeping rhizomes or erect stems with rosettes of fishbone-type fronds. Occasionally they form a short, scaly trunk. They grow in a semi-shaded to shaded position, with regular watering.

Blechnum gibbum – Silver Lady
Attractive fast growing dwarf tree fern to about 1metre high. Develops a short trunk with age. Great container plant.

Blechnum minus – Soft Water Fern

A short creeping fern to about 40cms found along creeks and open forests. Frost hardy. New fronds have a pinkish tinge.

Blechnum nudum – Fishbone Water fern

A tufted creeping fern of wet habitats. Can grow up to a metre tall and is found along creek banks and in rainforests eucalypt forests in eastern Australia. Older plants form a black fibrous trunk.

Blechnum patersonii – Strap water fern

An attractive, water-loving fern with hanging lobed fronds which are pinkish-brown when new. Slow growing to about 40cms, resents being disturbed. Great in a pot or hanging basket. Needs to be kept moist.


Cyathea – Tree Ferns

frans lanting tree ferns dicksonia antarctica in eucalyptus forestMostly terrestrial ferns with course slender brown trunks topped by a crown of fronds. They can grow in various habitats from cool temperate forests to tropical rainforests and prefer well-drained acidic soils rich in organic matter. They will look and grow much better with regular watering and fertilising. With our hot summers they appreciate a shady position, although some varieties may tolerate small amounts of sun. Cyathea tree ferns must be dug up to transplant not cut in half like you can do when transpalnting Dicksonia tree ferns.

Cyathea australis – Rough Tree Fern
An attractive cold-hardy tree fern that may tolerate small amounts of sun as long as it is well watered. Fertilise with well-rotted animal manure or organic fertilisers, and mulch well. A very tall tree fern, with older specimens in the wild growing up to 10 metres tall. Makes a great specimen plant in a pot and is tolerant of salty winds.

Cyathea brownii – Norfolk Island Tree Fern

Vigorous tree fern very similar to C. cooperi, and probably the largest tree fern species in the world. Endemic to Norfolk Island, it is reported to reach more than 20 metres in its natural habitat. Likes well-drained, organic rich, neutral to slightly acidic soils with frequent watering needed to keep this fern at its best. Prefers shelter from the hot sun, and is tolerant of very light frosts only.

Cyathea cooperi – Lacey or Scaly Tree fern

A popular fast growing and highly variable tree fern to around 15metres in its natural habitat. Prefers a protected, shady, well-watered position. Heavy frosts may kill fronds but the plant usually recovers quickly. Fertilise with well-rotted animal manure or organic fertilisers, and mulch well.

Cyrtomium falcatum – Holly Fern

Native to eastern Asia where it grows in rock crevices and along stream banks.  A popular hardy ornamental plant for the fernery. With its large leathery holly-like fronds it makes an attractive indoor plant tolerating cooler, dryer air than other ferns. Water and fertilise regularly to keep it looking its best.

Davallia species – Hare’s Foot Fern

Ideal for hanging baskets where their rhizomes growing over the sides of the basket resemble Rabbit or Hare’s feet. Sheltered, shady position in the garden. More tolerant of lower humidity than other ferns.

Dicksonia antartica – Soft Tree fern

A popular majestic tree fern native to eastern Australia. This fern thrives in cool, moist conditions and will tolerate a small amount of sun if well-watered. Forms a large fibrous trunk up to 15metres in its natural habitat. With their large canopy of fronds they provide shelter and shade for smaller ferns. Mulch and water well. Unlike the Cyatheas they can be cut in half to transplant, and will occasionally be available for sale as stumps of various sizes in Garden Centres.

Doodia aspera – Prickly Rasp Fern

Beautiful, spreading, tough little fern to about 35cms. The new growth is bright pink to red, and is undemanding as far as soils go, but must have good drainage. Tolerant on some sun and dryness once established.

Doodia media – Common Rasp fern

A great small clumping fern for shady rockeries or as a groundcover. Reddish new growth. Likes a well composted soil with good watering.

Dryopteris erythrosora – Autumn Fern

autumn fern detail june1A cold tolerant hardy small fern native to east Asia, China and Japan, where it thrives in deep shade to dappled sun positions in a range of soils where the drainage is good. The new coppery/bronze growth contrasts beautifully with the older green fronds. The new growth may be red in colder conditions. A very adaptable fern which also makes a good pot specimen.


Nephrolepis – Boston Ferns, Sword Ferns

An extremely popular genus of ferns grown extensively around the world. A very adaptable group of ferns that will grow in sun or shade, boggy sites and hot dry locations. They do prefer a well-drained, friable, acidic soil. They can be grown in pots or hanging baskets and make a fantastic hardy indoor plant. They can cope well with being pot bound as long as they are watered well. Fertilise during the warmer months, avoiding putting fertiliser on the fronds.

Nephrolepis cordifolia – Fishbone or Sword Fern

Hardy, spreading, shade loving fern in the temperate regions but will take full sun in the tropics where it is regarded as a weed. With its ability to grow in soil, rocks, as an epiphyte, in pots, hanging baskets and indoors, it is no wonder that it is such a widely distributed fern. The erect growth reaches about 80cms.

Nephrolepis exaltata ‘Bostoniensis’ – Boston Fern

A vigorous graceful fern which is well suited to a hanging basket, where the long arching fronds, that can reach up to 1metre, boldly hang. Makes an excellent indoor plant in a location with good light, avoiding temperature extremes. A bathroom with its high humidity is an excellent place to grow your Boston fern. Water well during the warmer weather.

Pellaea falcata – Sickle Fern

Commonly growing in the eastern states along the coast and ranges, in eucalypt forests and rainforests. A variable, spreading fern up to 60cms that will happily grow in shady to partial sun positions in well-drained soils. Likes plenty of water especially when grown as a container specimen.

Pellaea rotundifolia – Button Fern

A popular small fern from New Zealand only reaching a height of 20cms. This shade loving fern with its small round leaflets makes an excellent indoor plant, or grows well in an acid, humus rich soil in the garden.

Phlebodium aureum – ‘Blue Star’

An interesting fern with wavy blue-green foliage. Makes an attractive indoor plant for a pot or hanging basket. They will grow happily in the garden if given plenty of shade, well-drained soil and regular watering.


Platycerium – Staghorn and Elkhorn Ferns

There are about 18 species in this family of ferns native to tropical and temperate areas of Australia, Africa, Southeast Asia, New Guinea and South America.  Staghorns and elkhorns are some of the most amazing-looking plants and, despite their exotic appearance, they are relatively easy to grow. The reason they look so different from most other plants is that they have adapted to survive in the treetops. Stags and elks are epiphytic, which means that they grow high up in the rainforest canopy. Stags and elks have minimal root systems (just enough to anchor them to the tree) but they have adapted to catch leaves, debris and rainwater falling from above. Unlike most other plants, which absorb water and nutrients through their roots, these ferns survive by capturing sufficient quantities of moisture and nutrients form the surrounding air.

Dwarf Citrus

lemonDwarf citrus trees, will still produce full size fruit of top quality and quantity. Dwarf citrus are great for growing in pots or in small back yards where there is limited space.



Lemons Limes Oranges Mandarins
Eureka Dwarf

Lisbon Dwarf

Meyer Dwarf

Tahitian dwarf

Kaffir Dwarf

Washington Navel Dwarf

Valencia Dwarf

Emperor Dwarf

Imperial Dwarf





Cara Cara Red Navel: Is an early to mid-season orange early April, matures slightly earlier than the Washington Navel. Sweet and low in acid flavour, produces medium to large seedless fruit with deep rosy flesh. Temperature can alter the fruit color.

Washington Navel: Ripens early to late April to early May, the season can extends to end of September to early October. Oranges are medium to large, round, deep orange in colour, with slightly rough easy peeling skin and seedless flesh.  Best know eating orange and the riches and sweetest of the orange also good for juice.

Valencia: Has a very long ripping period, over the spring and summer.  The Valencia is a seeded orange; it is the best juicing orange, providing deep-orange juice. Fruit is of medium size of good colour, has thin skin and lots of juice. The Valencia is a large vigorous tree up to 6m, and is the most frost hardy of the oranges.

Seedless Valencia is very similar but with few seeds and fruit matures earlier than Valencia.

Blood Orange: Ripens Mid-Season, over the summer months.  The blood orange is a great eating orange, with a sweet and distinctive flavour. Produces orange round fruit with pink/red flesh and seedy. Colour is best developed in warm areas.  Fruit may lack red flesh colour, when grown in mild climates.

T.O.C (Toc Summer Navel): Is a late holding navel and crops well into summer. Fruit is round, medium to large in sized with a thin skin, excellent sweet flavour and very juicy.


Emperor: Matures Mid-season, late May to early July.  Good flavour mandarin, slow to colour and doesn’t achieve full colour on the tree until the middle or latter part of its life. Medium to large fruit with a loose skin and easily peeled.

Imperial: Matures late April to early May, products small to medium sized fruit, with few seeds and is easy peeling with fine thin skin. The flesh is juicy and sweet, an aromatic tangy flavour. Thinning needed in heavy crop years.

Japanese Seedless: Early season, ripens in May, near the same time as the Imperial.  Sweet flavour mandarin with large juicy seedless fruit with loose puffy skin and is easy to peel.


limesKaffir: Fruit is very irregular and bumpy. When ripe it has a thick yellow-greenish rind.Flesh is sour and slightly bitter. The leaves have lemony flavour and appetising aroma.Leaves (Fresh or dried) and fruit (zest and juice) can be used in cooking, particularly popular for Thai and Asian recipes. The leaves are quite different in appearance to other citrus, appearing like two leaves joined together. The Kaffir lime grows about 3m, shrub like habit, very thorny tree.

Tahitian: Produces one main crop in winter, will produce some fruit all year round in warm areas.Medium sized fruit, which is relatively seedless, has thin rind and smooth surface maturing to pale lemon-yellow. Harvest fruit while still green. True acid limeflavour, ideal for cooking and for refreshing drinks.  Medium sized tree, nearly thornless.

West Indian: Fruit develops all year round. The fruit is very small, round, moderately seedy and juicy. The flavour is acidic with a distinctive lime aroma. Small to medium sized bushy tree, with slender thorny branches.This lime is very cold sensitive, so must have warm and well produced site. 

Sublime: A good fruiting variety, producing fruit small fruit. A Compact and virtually thornless lime, ‘Sublime’ is perfect for pots only growing to 1.5m tall. Also makes an idea hedge, with aroma foliage.


lemons2Eureka: Ever bearing, matures most of the year, produces main crop during autumn-winter, but carry number of small crops during summer-autumn months. Produces medium to large juicy fruit with few seeds, also holds well on tree.Few thorns, has a moderate, open growth about 4m.

Lisbon: Main crop is produce in the autumn-winter months, can give year round supplies. Hold well on tree and produces large fruit withsmooth yellow thin rind, with a true lemon zest flavour.  A medium size tree about 3-4m, vigorous grower and quite thorny.

Meyer: Maturing over the Autumn-Winter months. Fruit is pale orange in colour when mature and round than most lemons. Sweet lemon, skin lacks the “lemon zest” flavour. It is fairly frost hardy and cold tolerance, ideal cooler climate lemon. The tree is small to medium in size making it ideal for growing in pots.

Thornless: Similar to the Eureka in growing habits, the difference is the fruit has a smooth skin, also when fruit is left on tree the skin remains finer than the Eureka.

Lemonade: Main crops mature July/August. With careful pruning and feeding small summer crop is possible. Fruitcontains few seeds, looks like a lemon but is segments in a mandarin fashion. The flavour is described as “lemonade like”, very mild can be eaten straight from the tree. Tree growth is vigorous and attractive.


grapefruiteMarsh: Consistent a heavy bearer, fruit matures over autumn and winter.Large, round fruit, with is thin-skinned. Pale to light yellow at maturity, with a smooth and even surface. It has few or no seedless and holds very well on the tree. Gowns very well in hot climates, in cooler climates the fruit tends to be thick skinned.

Ruby Red: Matures over autumn, this grapefruit is oblong is shape and has deep pink pigmentation in the rind and flesh, especially when ripe.

Wheeny: Earlier maturing than other grapefruit varieties, fruit ripping over autumn. Fruit develops very good flavor (Lemon like) and juice content, thin skin and but is very seedy. Grows well in cooler climates and more tolerate of cooler conditions then other grapefruit.


CumquatGreen: Main crop in winter, with fruit several times a year, produces orange round fruit, prolific bearer, and very colorful tree when fruit is ripe.

Nagami: Fruit ripens mid to late winter and always crops heavily.  Oval shaped fruit, sweet of the cumquats. Unlike like other cumquats Nagami fruit can be eaten whole, skin and all. Flesh can be quite sour, but skin has a sweeter flavor, when eaten together is very refreshing. Dwarf in nature, making it idea for pots.

Mertifolia: Deep dark green shiny foliage with small pointed leaves, yellow to orange fruit, highly ornamental upright growth, with fruit that turns bright orange when ripe, but fruit is too sour to be eaten fresh.  Mertifolia is best grown in a warm protected position.



ASPECT:  Full sun is best, but good bloom can still be obtained with half a day’s sun. The heavier the shade the less likely they are to flower.

CLIMATE:  Best suited to dry summers and cold to frosty winters. If there is not enough cold then flowers are not initiated and blooming will be poor and on very short stems, even to being right down in the fan. (See State by State headings). High summer rainfall can cause problems with rot.

SOIL TYPE: Bearded Iris prefer a neutral to alkaline well-drained soil, but will grow in acidic soils. A friable, well-drained soil with sufficient nutrients to support growth is best.

WHEN TO PLANT: The best time to plant is immediately after flowering. That is November through till after the end of March. Later planting is acceptable, but the later they are planted, the lower percentage of bloom can be expected the following spring. The Iris experts who grow their Iris for showing have their planting completed by Christmas to give maximum growing time to give quality flower stems.

REPLANTING: The optimum length of time can vary according to climate and soil type. On a light sandy soil around Melbourne they are best replanted every year and again the people who show the blooms usually replant every year. In general garden conditions, two years on a light soil and 3 to 4 years on a heavier soil in a cooler climate should suffice for continual good blooming. An idea to assess the plants after two seasons and select those clumps that are really looking crowded, lift and divide them and the following year lift those remaining. This breaks up the work load and it keeps up a full display.

iris1DEPTH OF PLANTING: Rhizomes need to be planted just at soil level. Make a mound of soil in a small hole, sit the rhizome on top of the mound so the roots hang into the hole, then cover the rhizome and roots with soil.

DISTANCE APART: Planting 10-20cms apart will give you an established clump straight away, but planted further apart is also ok.

CUTTING BACK FOLIAGE: Unless replanting, don’t cut back the foliage in summer. This could result in a 15% reduction in flowering the following year. Just pull away dead foliage.

FERTILISERS: At planting time a slow release, all purpose fertiliser is recommended. The important point about both of these is to ensure they are underneath the rhizomes and not scattered around the plants.

A side dressing in early spring of a rose fertiliser will improve flower quality and colour. Don’t overuse animal manure and blood and bone (nitrogenous fertilisers) as this will promote soft growth and in turn rot and leaf spot and also poor flowering. Organic fertilisers are best used in autum.

WATERING: Water in well on planting, then a good soaking once a week is enough. If they are established, once a week over hot dry periods is ample. Over-watering can also cause soft growth prone to disease.

iris2PESTS AND DISEASES:  Fungal leaf spots can occur, especially if it is too wet. You can remove these leaves, ignore them, or spray with a fungicide. If the position is right they are usually fairly disease free.

Over-watering and over-feeding can make the problem worse so we suggest you do not use animal manure on the soil around the plants and water once a week in dry periods. Rhizome rot can sometimes occur, often in the summer when it is hot and humid. This is often due to over-watering when it is too hot. If the plant looks like it can be saved, cut away the infected part and expose to the sun to dry out. Dry tips can occur over summer due to dryness or salty water. Snails can sometimes attack the leaves.

POT CULTURE: Some of the best Iris are grown in pots. Use pots of at least 10″ diameter, preferably larger. Use the best soil mix available and use the same fertilisers as for planting in garden beds. Put the pots where they get at least half day sun and winter cold. They will need to be watered more often.

Flowering time is usually the same as for Tall Bearded grown in the open garden,mid October through to late November.

CUT FLOWERS: Though they are fairly fragile, they can be used as commercial cut flowers if a little care is taken in picking them in bud 2 or 3 days before they would open and wrapping 2 or 3 stems together in tissue paper and either laying the flat for transport or storing them overnight in water in a cool place.


These irises grow somewhere in between the Tall and dwarf varieties. Cultural directions are the same as for Tall Bearded Iris, but they do tolerate colder conditions. Median Bearded Iris flower from early October and flow through into the early Tall Bearded season. They are more tolerant of exposed sites due to their smaller size.


ASPECT Full sun is essential. Partial sun results in little or no flower.

CLIMATE Some frosty mornings in the winter are essential or there will be a profusion of foliage and no flowers.

SOIL TYPE As long as it affords the plant a good loose root run it does not matter, otherwise it is much the same as for Tall Bearded Iris.

WHEN TO PLANT AND REPLANTING Same as for Tall Bearded types, but in colder climates they may be left in borders for many years with no lessening in bloom. If bloom quantity does diminish, lift and replant after blooming.

iris4DEPTHS OF PLANTING Just cover the rhizome. If too deep it will stop flowering.

DISTANCE APART 25cms to 35cms

FERTILISERS More care should be taken than with Tall Bearded so as not to overproduce foliage with too much nitrogenous manure and too much artificial fertiliser can burn the plants. Fertilise as you would Azaleas. Feed in summer or on replanting and or a light side dressing in August of Azalea food.

WATERING They may require to be watered more often than the Tall Bearded Iris, particularly if planted in light sandy soil that can heat up in summer. Maybe every 4 or 5 days, more often in heat wave conditions. Once established, ease off to once a week.

DISEASES Leaf spot and rust are the main problems. Treat the same as Tall Bearded. Rhizome rot is rarely seen in Dwarf Bearded Iris.

POT CULTURE Dwarf Bearded Iris are particularly well suited to pot culture. Select pots of a diameter of 20 cms or more. If 30cm pots are used, 3 rhizomes can be planted in each to give a massed display. Make sure the pots are in the sun all day and get plenty of winter cold, preferably frost. They may need to be watered more often than the Tall Bearded types, otherwise culture is the same.


ASPECT Full sun or light shade. Dappled sunlight is fine, but too much shade can prevent good flowering in spring. Plant in partial shade in hot climates.

CLIMATE Louisiana Iris come from the southern states of America where it is hot and humid, so they do well in similar areas of Australia, particularly where Tall Bearded will not thrive. They are excellent in Coastal area of NSW and Queensland. They also give wonderful results in and around Perth. They do well in other areas of Australia but maybe not as well in really cold mountainous areas where severe frost is prevalent.

SOIL TYPE They are very heavy feeders and prefer a good rich loam or soil that has had the addition of plenty of humus and compost. They will not tolerate alkaline or limey soil, so the pH level must be below 6.5. For this reason avoid putting too much fowl manure in the soil.

SUITABILITY TO WATER PLANTING Possibly the best Iris for planting in water or boggy conditions as well as normal garden beds. If they are planted around dams, ensure that the soil is rich and not just subsoil left after the dam was excavated.

If they are to be planted in pots, it is best to establish the plants in the pots for a few months first or they may float out of the pot. 1″ of gravel on the surface of the pot may prevent this.

In selecting a potting mix, make it as rich as possible and be considerate of any fish in the pond as artificial fertiliser may not be suitable.

iris6WHEN TO PLANT The best time for planting is after flowering in December through summer and autumn, but as these Iris are basically evergreen, they can be planted at any time; but we suggest it is best to avoid planting just before bloom time which is in October and November.

REPLANTING The same as for Tall Bearded Iris, 1 to 3 years, but because these Iris can be so vigorous, care has to be taken to see that they don’t get mixed as they can easily grow into each other.

DEPTHS OF PLANTING Louisiana iris tend to send their roots to the surface, so it is best to cover the rhizomes with 2cms to 5cms of soil. Also they would benefit from a light mulch in particularly hot areas. This mulch can be bark, leaves or light compost. Avoid lawn clippings as they can get very hot.

FERTILISERS Use plenty of compost, cow manure, or any other suitable soil improver. Also the addition of a long term slow release fertiliser will improve flower quality. Apply on planting and again a side dressing in September of Azalea and Camellia food will give good results.

WATERING They can’t be over-watered. Also once established they are remarkably drought resistant as long as the weeds are kept out of the clumps.

DISEASES Leaf spot and rust seem to be the main problems and the same conditions and preventative measures apply as do for Tall Bearded Iris. However if a plant variety seems to be a continual problem in a bed, plant it somewhere else, or discard it and grow another variety.

POT CULTURE They may be grown in 25 cms pots for best results. Use the best soil available and treat as for Tall Bearded Iris.

CUT FLOWERS They are suitable as cut flowers.


ASPECT Must be in full sun or little or no flowers will result.

CLIMATE Hot dry areas with low summer rainfall are best. If there is a lot of summer rainfall, Mustard Seed fungus can cause rot problems. They also require winter cold, preferably some frost.

SOIL TYPE They like a good rich soil with some depth. Good drainage is important but a moist soil, as long as excess water can drain away, is fine. They are fairly tolerant of pH and do well in sandy soil or clay loam.

WHEN TO PLANT The ideal time is late summer and autumn. They resent being moved and often won’t flower very well in the year after moving. They also usually fall if moved too early as the rhizomes have to mature.

REPLANTING Select a place to plant Spurias where they can stay for 4 or more years, as they will give a good show if left in place as long as they have some annual fertiliser program. They don’t mind being a bit crowded.

DEPTH OF PLANTING Cover with at least 5cms of soil. If they are too near the surface they will not take hold as well and will take extra time to become established until they can pull themselves down.

DISTANCE APART 40cms to 60cms

FERTILISERS On planting use pelletised animal manure and/or Osmocote underneath and a side dressing of balanced fertiliser in spring. Summer dressings of old compost or old animal manure can be applied in later years, taking care to keep it away from the plants. Work it gently into the ground. Generally much the same as for Tall Bearded Iris.

WATERING This is quite important. Spurias have a dormant period over summer, and at this stage they should have little or no water until the growth starts again in autumn. So select a place where water can be withdrawn over summer. Rot can easily result if over-watered.

WINTER JOY Because these Iris have a summer dormancy, they start to grow in autumn and have delightful foliage over winter and early spring and look very effective in a garden setting with dark green sword-like foliage.

DISEASES A little leaf spot is noticeable and is rarely a worry.

CUT FLOWERS Possibly the Iris with the most potential as a cut flower. They flower in November when most other Iris have finished. They can have stems up to 4 ft long for large vases and they are not as fragile as other Iris. Pick in bud 1 or 2 days from opening.


ASPECT Full sun. Less sun will result in less flowering.

CLIMATE Areas with cold winters and some hard regular frosts are best. If frosts are not a climatic feature, then flowering could be poor or the flower stems will be very short.

SOIL TYPE They should have rich soil with plenty of moisture and should not be allowed to dry out. They will grow in quite damp conditions, along creeks, besides ponds etc. but not in standing water.

WHEN TO PLANT Siberian Iris are totally dormant in winter, so they can be moved any time after they have matured in later summer through to August. They don’t like moving much and may not flower well in the first year after planting.

REPLANTING Select a place where they will not have to be moved for 4 or more years. They form tight neat clumps and are not invasive. They generally have to be cut up with a knife or treated as a perennial, rather than as an Iris.

DEPTH OF PLANTING Cover just the crown with no more than an inch of soil.

DISTANCE APART 40cms to 60cms

FERTILISERS They are heavy feeders and prefer organic fertilisers over chemical fertilisers. A light dressing of rose food in spring may improve the quality of bloom. They love compost or cow manure.

WATERING Regular watering is important. Don’t let them dry out like Spurias or Tall Bearded. Good soakings once a week, or more often if necessary, particularly if replanted in summer.

DISEASES Virtually disease free.

POT CULTURE They flower in pots if they are 20cms or more in diameter. Use a good soil mix with plenty of organic matter. Don’t let them dry out and ensure they get plenty of sun and winter frost.

CUT FLOWERS They are in many people’s eyes the most graceful of the Iris and are ideal for cutting and taking inside. Each clump flowers profusely once established, so there are usually plenty to cut and leave a display in the garden. They usually flower after the Tall Bearded are past their peak, so continuity of bloom with Siberians ensures a good supply of flowers to cut.


CULTURE Evergreen Iris that are suitable for semi-shade or morning sun only. Ideal for light woodland landscaping. Protect from heavy frost of more than -5̊ C. They don’t like lime and are heavy feeders. Use organic material and use it as a mulch. Keep the plants well drained but don’t let them dry out. They don’t have to be replanted very often (except for Iris Tectorum) and they can become invasive, but are easy to remove as they are just in the top couple of inches of soil.

IRIS TECTORUM  It seems to do best if replanted each year. It is excellent in a pot, but again repot each season.

IRIS CRISTATA Another Evansia. This is also best if replanted each season. Also it is totally dormant in winter and as it is such a tiny Iris, it needs to be carefully marked in the garden for winter as it could easily be lost in winter gardening, having such small rhizomes.


CULTURE These lovely Iris can be treated in the same way culturally as Siberian Iris with a couple of extra notes.

SOIL TYPE They will not tolerate lime. It will kill them. So make sure the pH is below 6.

SUITABILITY FOR WATER Many publications recommend these Iris for ponds.

They are good in water but precautions have to be taken to ensure they don’t rot in winter. So it is best to remove the pots after the leaves start to brown off in autumn and let the pots be treated as normal pot plants during winter. Repot them at this time and put the pots back into the pond when the leaves start to shoot in September. For quality flowers in pots repot every year.

REPLANTING Japanese Iris are very heavy feeders and we have found that it is best to replant every year or every second year in normal garden beds to keep up the flower quality and quantity.



CULTURE Very tough group of Iris that can be planted at most times of the year. Avoid very hot dry weather. They need little or no attention and can be left in the one place for many years. They enjoy dappled light under trees and grow well in large shadehouses. They must have good drainage. Otherwise, please yourself how they are treated. Pots, borders, features for colour in winter, when there is nothing much flowering.

FOLIAGE They have shiny dark green narrow leaves, and as the flowers have no stem the flower display may be enhanced by cutting back the foliage by about a third in April/May.


Why won’t my Bearded Iris flower?

Non-bloom of Bearded Iris can be caused by a number of factors and usually it is a combination of several factors.

  • Planting in too much shade. They should have at least half day sun, preferably full sun. The Iris need sun and heat in particular during January and February to form flowers for next spring.
  • Letting weeds, perennials or annuals like Petunias cover the rhizomes. This acts much the same as too much shade.
  • Planting too deep. Rhizomes need to be just at soil level.
  • Over-feeding with too much nitrogenous fertilizer. Nitrogenous fertilizers such as blood and bone or animal manure make leaf growth and Iris are grown for bloom, not foliage. Use a balanced fertilizer on planting such as a rose fertilizer. If soil is really poor you can use pelletised animal or poultry manure on planting but make sure it goes underneath. Do not spread it around the plants as it can cause rot and aggravate leaf spot in summer. Do not use any sort of mulch, this will stop bloom and could also cause rot.
  • Over-watering or under-watering can also cause bloom failure due to not enough water to grow well enough to make bloom size rhizomes and over-watering can cause the roots to rot and the same result will occur. Once established a good deep watering once a week is sufficient, maybe more often in a heat wave, but do it in the cool of the evening.

 When is the best time to replant Bearded Iris and how often should it be done?

  • Immediately after blooming is the best time to replant, that is December. This lets the plants have a full season of growth where they are to flower. Iris are best replanted every 2 to 3 years. Many people replant every year, particularly if they are growing for exhibition at shows. If they are not replanted after 3 years, they become very crowded and flowering quality and quantity decline.

How long can rhizomes of Bearded Iris be left out of the ground?

  • The ideal is to replant immediately upon lifting, however they are very tough plants and can be left out of the ground in a cool and dry place for several weeks without much harm. Do not let them get wet or moist. Keep them dry.

All my Iris have turned out to be white (or blue) and all the pretty pink ones have reverted. Why?

  • This cannot happen. What usually occurs is that the white and blue varieties are usually the strongest and smother the other colours not letting them flower. Keep the colours well marked in some way in the garden and you will always know what varieties you have.

My Iris have brown spots on the leaves. What is it?

This is a fungal disease called leaf spot and usually causes no bother except unsightliness. This can be reduced by clean cultivation, making sure no animal manure or compost or other mulch that can break down is around the base of the plants. If severe a fungicide can used.

Should I cut back the Iris after flowering?


T.B.’s Medians Dwarfs Spurias Lousianas Siberians Evansias
Q/land Coastal NO NO NO NO YES NO YES
Q/land Inland e.g. Darling Downs YES YES YES YES YES YES YES
NSW.. North of Newcastle Coastal NO NO NO NO YES NO YES
South Aust. YES YES YES YES Some Areas YES YES
W.A. Perth Area Some Areas Some Areas Some Areas YES YES NO YES
W.A. South & Inland Frosty Areas YES YES YES YES YES YES YES
W.A. Northern Coastal & N.T. NO NO NO NO YES NO YES


hydrangea1Hydrangeas have oval leaves with serrates edges, but they are mainly grown for their flowers. Who can forget the magnificent flowers of the hydrangeas? Whites, reds, pinks, purples, blues and all shades in-between. Flowers heads are created by long-lasting bracts Flat-top (lacecap), rounded (mophead) or conical, that form the backdrop to tiny short lived, true flowers. The bracts can last for months as the weather cools, they will take on shades of antique green and purple.

Hydrangeas grown best in a semi shaded position where they will receive morning sun but be in shade for the afternoon therefore being protected from the hottest part of the day. Keep in mind, Hydrangeas do not like extremely hot conditions. Typically hydrangeas prefer rich, moist soil that drains easily.

Hydrangeas become available from October on and best time to plant out hydrangeas is in spring once the threat of frost has passed. It is a good idea to improve soil before planting by mixing plenty of compost or organic matter. Always water thoroughly after planting.


hydrangea2WATERING: Hydrangeas need regular watering, particularly in late spring and throughout the summer. The most important thing to remember is not to let them dry out, or they will wilt. It is also important to keep hydrangeas well-watered while blooms are forming, because if they dry out at this stage the display will be ruined for the season.

Hydrangeas growing in the ground require a deep soaking once or twice a week, where plants in pots need daily watering when weather is warm. Through you need to keep the watering up to hydrangeas in pots, they make wonderful pot plants, as this allows flexibility of moving them out of the way when they are looking bare in winter.

FLOWER COLOUR: Hydrangeas are amazingly in that the flower color can be altered, according to the acidity or alkalinity (pH) of the soil. Plants grown in acid soil (pH 5 or less) are usually blue, as soil pH heads towards the neutral and alkaline (pH 7 or more) flowers turn mauve, pink and red. White flowering hydrangeas will remain white regardless of soil pH.

pink hydAdd to soil in spring lime (calcium carbonate) to encourage pinkness and aluminium sulfate to promote blue color flowers or fortunately Hydrangea Blueing or Pinking Tonic comes in a ready to mixed pack for your early use.

Begin applications late winter and apply once a month until October following the directions on pack. Ultimate results will be determent by the basic soil pH. But it can be fun to experiment and there are some fascinating in-between shades.

Even if not altering flower color, hydrangeas still need fertilizing. Throughout the growing season feed regularly with liquid fertilizer or with slow release pellets.

PRUNNING: Hydrangeas can be pruned any time after flowering is over, although pruning can be left until mid-winter.If hydrangeas are pruned too fiercely year after year flowering will be reduced, so just cut back the current season’s growth to two plump eyes or leaf buds. Don’t cut back into old grey wood. Leave stems that have not flowered as these will produces the following season’s flowers.

DISEASES: Hydrangeas are prone to fungal diseases like powdery mildew. Pull off and dispose of affected leaves. If the problem is severe, spray with a fungicide. Like Mancozeb pus garden fungicide and miticide.



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Ferns add a tranquil cool environment to the garden. A great place to sit and unwind from the day’s summer heat. Planted in the right position, ferns can grow well even in Adelaide’s harsh climate. Great for that awkward shady spot in the garden.

Ferns need a rich well-composted soil in a shady spot, with protection from sun, wind and frost. Either under a tree or in a shade house is ideal. A good watering system is essential to give them the growing conditions they need to thrive. It is also a helpful to have an overhead misting system, which keeps the humidity high and therefore stops the fronds from browning during the hot weather. Adding a pond to the fernery not only adds interest but also more humidity into the environment. Mulching is very important to keep the soil moist and the plants roots cool. Ferns like to be planted close together which creates their own micro-climate. There are many ferns that grow well in Adelaide, but if a large area is to be planted out you can use other tropical plants like Aralias and Philodendrons. Fertilise regularly in the warmer months using a specific fern fertiliser or use other fertilisers at half the recommended dose.


Ferns in hanging baskets add a real taste of the tropics to your outdoor areas. There are many types of hanging baskets on the markets, from decorative wire baskets to plastic and self-watering hanging baskets. Wire baskets while looking great do dry out very quickly and will need to be watered several times a day during the hot weather. Plastic baskets protect the soil from drying out as quickly, and self-watering baskets keep the plants roots moist for longer still. On really hot windy days you may need to put the baskets on the ground in protected spot. A dripper system set up in your hanging baskets will alleviate the headache of trying to keep the plants well-watered while you are away from home. Hangers can be submerged to the top of the basket in a large container of water to rewet the potting mix, which can become non-wetting. Do this once a week or as needed, remembering they will be quite heavy once rewet, so leave to drain before trying to hang up.


Given the right conditions, ferns can do well inside. Bathrooms and kitchens are great spots because of the higher humidity in these areas. Ferns, like most plants, do not like our heating or cooling systems. Therefore it is important to keep the humidity up to them to maintain a healthy, lush, disease free plant. A saucer filled with pebbles and water is a great spot to place your fern for extra humidity. If possible it is always a good idea to spell your plants outside in a shady protected environment.





A well set up shade house can be a wonderful addition to the garden giving many hours of pleasure. With good watering and misting you can create a lush tranquil space to enjoy. Shade cloth needs to be green, 70-80% for best protection from the harsh summer sun.



Potato “The Humble Spud”

potatoes2Potatoes are easy to grow and are a staple crop in many countries. With lots of varieties available it’s important to know that not all potatoes are the same. Some are right for mashing while others fabulous for baking, steaming, microwaving and then there are those that make the perfect chip. Here a rundown of the most common varieties of spuds and how to use them.

Variety Description Boiling/Salad Mashing Baking Roasting Chips
Coliban Round, white skin, white flesh, floury Average Good Excellent Average Good
Desiree Long, red skin, yellow flesh, creamy Good Good Average Good Poor
Dutch Cream Oval, yellow skin, yellow flesh, creamy Excellent Good Good Excellent Good
Fir Apple Long, pale pink skin, cream flesh, waxy Excellent Good Good Excellent Excellent
Kennebec Round, white/thin skin, white flesh, floury Poor Good Good Good Excellent
King Edward Oval, white & pink skin, white flesh, fluffy Poor Good Excellent Excellent Average
Kipfler Long, yellow skin, yellow flesh, waxy Excellent Poor Average Good Poor
Nicola Long/oval, yellow skin, yellow flesh, waxy Good Good Good Good Average
Pontiac Round, red skin, white flesh, creamy Good Excellent Good Good Poor
Royal Bule Long/oval, purple skin, yellow flesh, sweet Good Excellent Excellent Excellent Excellent
Ruby Lou Oval, pink skin, cream/white flesh, creamy Excellent Good Good Good Good
Sebago Oval, cream skin, white flesh, floury Good Excellent Good Good Poor


Potatoes3Seed Potatoes are available for purchase from June/July, these are the best way to go as they are guaranteed to be virus free. It’s possibly to grow potatoes in many months of the year, depending on whether the garden receives frost, as potatoes are frost-tender. Potatoes can be planted in late winter through to early spring, shortly before last frost is expected.  Although planting can be continued into summer the risk of pest and disease increases.

Before planting put seed potatoes into a well lit (out of sunlight) spot for a few weeks to shoot. Seed Potatoes can be cut in half or small piece to increase the number of plants. If cutting into smaller pieces, leave plenty of flesh with each eye and allow the cuts to dry for 24 hours before planting, as cutting into small pieces can increase the risk of rot.

Potatoes prefer a sunny position with fertile, well-drained, acidic soil with a pH less than 6. They will not thrive in heavy clay or a lime soil. Prepare the potato bed with some compost and some Dynamic Lifter or Rapid Raiser.

Plant seed potatoes 10 cm deep, space 30 cm apart and then cover with a mulch about 30 cm deep to retain moisture and protect tubers from light. New shoots will appear in 2-3 weeks and require mounding which will encourage formation of new tubers. Straw mulch can be used for mounding. Give the plants another dressing of Blood and Bone, Dynamic Lifter or Rapid Raiser pellets in early summer.

There are many different ways to grow potatoes, traditional hilling, deep mulch, containers, potato bags and a no-dig garden. Choose the method that suits your garden area the best as success can be had no matter which way you go.

Potatoes usually take three to four months to mature, depending on the variety.  They are ready for harvesting when the majority of the top have withered.  Early potatoes may be dug by hand by carefully digging beneath the plant for table use at any time, but for storage the potatoes should be fully mature. Once dug, dry as quickly, and then store in a cool, dark, dry place. As exposure to light will turn the potatoes green; green potatoes are poisonous and should ever be eaten.



The plants are not difficult to grow and will thrive under a variety of conditions. With proper care your rhubarb will provided a tasty and ornamental addition to the vegetable garden. Rhubarb leaves are poisonous and should NEVER be eaten.

Rhubarb can be grown by seed, or with seedlings. If growing them this way then after planting leave for about two or three years. Do not pick any of the crop, just let it grow naturally. So plants develop a strong root system.

The other way to grow them and usually the most popular method is buying a crown. Rhubarb crowns are available for purchase and planting winter through to early spring starting from around May onwards.

Rhubarb like a sunny to part sun position. Prepare the Rhubarb bed with some compost and some Blood and Bone, Dynamic Lifter or Rapid Raiser.  To plant the crown you will need to dig hole or a trench if planting larger numbers. For each crown make a little mound, at the bottom of the hole/trench. Sit the crown nicely on top of the mound. Plant about 1-1.5m apart. In areas where there is extreme hot or cold conditions plant the roots with the crown bud 5 cm below the surface of the soil. In areas with mild temperatures all year round then only place 1 cm of soil to cover the top of the crown. Firm the soil, but keep it loose over the buds. Water well once planted. As the plants grow feed regularly.

Keep Rhubarb well-watered but make sure it has good drainage. Rhubarb likes a fair amount of moisture around its roots during the warmer months, but it definitely will not survive in boggy conditions. The soil should be well-drained, especially to get them through the winter. Young plants are prone to rotting off.

When watering apply water at the base of the plant, never directly over its leaves or stems as rhubarb stems are prone to rots and rusts. If you cannot find an ideal position why do try some in a pot.

Snails and slugs love Rhubarb! So keep your eye out for them.

Don’t harvest the first year so to allow crown to develop a strong root system. As the clumps develop, pick more heavily about every six weeks or so should be often enough. When harvesting Rhubarb, pull the largest stalks cleanly downwards and sideways from the outside of the clump and always leave at least four stems in the centre of the clump as Rhubarb needs some leaves to keep its food factory functioning. If Rhubarb leaves are not red enough for your liking, try adding some extra potassium (potash).

Don’t worry if the Rhubarb stems, are green and not red as some plants will stay green even in good soils. Mark out the red stem areas before winter and when you divide the crowns only plant back the pieces which produce red stems.

Rhubarb really benefit from being lifted out of the ground and divided up into pieces and should be done every few years. Late winter and early spring are the best times for dividing. Select the best parts of the clump for replanting and discard the rest. The strongest pieces can be planted back into the same garden bed or a new position in a sunny or lightly shaded place. Before planting dig plenty of organic matter into the area and mix some Rapid Raiser or Dynamic lifter into the soil.








Citrus are the most popular fruit bearing plants grown in Australia. Glossy green foliage, white scented flowers and colourful great tasking fruit make these trees a must for every back yard. Citrus trees are not only practical but make great ornamental and container growing trees. Citrus trees are all very easy to grow and will thrive under a variety of conditions. With proper care citrus will provided an abundance of fruit that can be left on the tree for long periods.

The best time to plant citrus is in the spring and autumn. When it comes to planting, select the site carefully, keeping in mind all heat and frost protection requirements.

Citrus love sunshine, they prefer open warm sunning position, receiving full sun for about 4-6 hours. Through most citrus will tolerate light frost, a position perfected from frost is advisable as frost can damage young blossom bearing shoots. Shelter from strong cooling winds is important as this can damage young growth, blossom and developing fruit.

Citrus preferred a light, well drainage soil, good drainage is vital for citrus as they are susceptible to rootrot. Citrus are heavy feeders and require a deep, friable, rich soil that is well prepared before planting.If you have a heavy, clay soil, you’ll need to dig in plenty of gypsum and S.A Compost. As trees can often struggle in heavy clay soil unless good soil preparing has been provided. Avoid planting in low lying areas that retain run-off in the winter months.

WATERING: Citrus are not deep rooted trees, regular watering is required, care must be taken to ensure they have adequate watering during hot summer months. Do not over water citrus trees. Good deep soaking once or twice a week, instead of small daily watering is much more beneficial for citrus when weather is warm. As weather cools down it’s important to back off on watering as citrus don’t like to have wet roots or their roots sitting in water for longer periods of time.

MULCH: When mulching citrus, only mulch in late spring to conserve moisture during hot summer months. Care must be taken not to build up mulch around trunk of trees as this may cause collar rot. It is advisable to remove mulch back from citrus over winter months, so to let them dry out and let sun warm soil. Lawn and citrus don’t mix, do not under plant citrus with lawn or plants.

FERTILISER: Like most plants, citrus trees need foods which contain essential nutrients for healthy green foliage and large juicy fruit. It is recommended when fertilising lemons, oranges, grapefruit, mandarins, limes and cumquats etc, to use a Fruit and Citrus Fertiliser. Spread the fertiliser 30 cm away from the trunk covering the whole area outwards to the edge of the foliage drip line (where the foliage ends). Water the fertiliser immediately into the ground after application.  NEVER apply more than is recommended.

PRUNNING: In general citrus need little or no pruning; there is no need to prune or trainee to particular shape. Citrus will naturally grow into bushy trees, however trees will be healthier, easier to manage and produce more reliable crops over the trees produced life, if trainee, shaped, and pruned. Citrus can be train to vase shape with well-placed main braches or to any shape you like. Why not have a go at espalier one, if you’re limited on space. Always prune out any dead, damage or disease branches, citrus can tolerate heavy cutting back if required. After harvest, in early spring is the best time to prune, or in late winter.

LIMITED AREA: Don’t have the room for a large tree? Short on space, try growing one in a pot or try your hard at espaliering.

As long as theirs a sunny position it’s possible to grow citrus in a pot, but be aware they need constant care, feeding and watering to produce a healthy crop. All that’s need is a good size pot, Half wine barrels (or pots of a similar size) and quality potting mix.

Espalier a citrus. This way trees provide an evergreen screen, but don’t encroach on the garden. There are many different ways to espalier a tree, the main objected is to grown one flat against a wall or fence. Plant citrus at about 1.5m intervals, and about 30 centimetres from fence or wall. Tie the stems to horizontal wires along fence, place wire about 20 centimetres apart.



antsAnts run up and down the citrus trees, they are a secondary problems arising from another pest problem. The presence of ants is usually an indication that there is a Scale or Aphid problem. The Ants feed from the sticky exudate of the Scale and Aphids.

Control Methods: Control the scale or aphids and the ants will disappear.


aphidsAphids are small, soft-bodied insects, there are many different species of aphids which vary in color from green to yellow and black. Aphids often cluster on new young shoots and flower buds or underneath older leaves, particularly in spring and autumn. Buds may fail to open and leaves are twisted and distorted. New growth may be stunted. Aphids also transmit virus diseases.

Control Methods: Spray for aphids on citrus, but sprays that enter the plant and move in the sap are unsuitable. Spray with pyrethrum sprays or horticulture oils, like Pest oil, white oil or eco-oil.Also natural predators such as ladybirds and parasitic wasps will control numbers.



There are two main groups of scale insects, both of which spend most of their lives as immobile adults, sucking the sap from stalks, leaves and stems. Hard scale and Soft scale are usually found on the mid-rib of leaves and stalks of citrus. Scale can cause death of stems if infestation is heavy. Again, spring and autumn are the usual seasons when these are more prevalent.

Control Methods: Spray with horticulture oils, like Pest oil, white oil or eco-oil, making sure to cover the insects. If there are only small number it may be possible remove them by hand.



Sooty mouldSooty moulds are black and dry and look just like soot.Sooty moulds are a secondary problems arising from another pest problem.  Insects such as aphids and scales produce “honeydew” and where this substance falls provides an environment on which sooty mould can grow. Sooty moulds don’t directly damage but if it’s very thick or remains for a long time it may reduce photosynthesise.

Control Methods: Removing the source of the honeydew will usually solve the sooty mould problem. Control the insects like sales and aphids.


This insect is native to Australia; its host is the native finger lime, but has adapted to wider variety of citrus fruits.  Around September the wasp lays eggs into the soft new growth. The larvae grown within the soft stem for 9-12months , as the larvae develop, unsightly galls appear on the trees and gradually increase in size as the larva grow, gall are full-size by autumn. From mid-September to early November the adult wasps emerges from infested galls leaving small exit holes and live for about a week. Wraps are poor flyers so tend to re-fest the same tree, but can be move around by wind to nearby trees. Galls cannot be ‘cured’ or reversed.  Developing galls need to be removed cut out; therefore citrus gall is more damaging to younger citrus trees than older trees.

Plants Affected: All citrus especially lemons and limes. As well as the native Finger Lime.

Control Methods: Controlling citrus gall wasp can be difficult, there is not cure but damage can be minimized by:

  • Remove/cut out all new galls that don’t show signs of exit holes before August.
  • Destroying all infected stems by burning or bagging.
  • Hanging yellow sticky traps inside infected trees from mid-August to trap any emerging adult wasps.
  • Avoiding high nitrogen fertilizer in spring as this promotes soft sappy growth, perfect for the egg laying stage. Instead fertilizing trees in late autumn and early winter, so to reduce soft growth in spring time when gall wasp is around.


leafminerThe adults of this pest is a small moth, it is silvery-white in colour with fringed wings.  The moth lay eggs along the midrib of young leaves. Larvae are pale-green and difficult to see, they tunnel into the leaf and as they eat leaving silver trails over the leaves. The larvae are the damaging stage, attacking the young growth flush and causing leaves to twist and curl.

Plants Affected: All citrus varieties. New growth only affected, once leaves have hardened, they are resistant to leafminer attack.

Control Methods: Control of leaf minter can be hard as larvae are shielded within the leaf. But reduction of infestation can be achieved by:

  • Remove leaves that show signs of citrus leaf minter.
  • Spray horticultural oils to reduce numbers of egg laying. Moths avoid surface sprayed with oils. Two or more sprays may be required.
  • Reduce infestations by limiting production of new leaves when leafminer numbers are highest: Prune growth flushes. Fertilize in late winter to promote strong spring growth when the leafminer numbers are low.


irondeficIron deficiencies are quite common in our lime rich soils, therefore the term ‘lime induced chlorosis. Young leaves are affected first, leaves appear light green, pale yellow or even white, while the veins remain quite green. New growth appears normal in mild cases, but in severe cases leaves may be smaller and dieback may occur. Also fruit crop yield will be reduced.

Control Methods: Foliage applications of iron in the chelate form in a solution to the soil around the plants or to the foliage.


Strong winds can effectively damage citrus trees. The wind can bashes new leaves against branches, which causes some cell damage.  Damage caused to leaves means a reduction in photosynthesis, therefore a reduction in the amount of sugars needed for maintenance of the tree for fruit production.

There is no real control for wind damage. When planting choose an area not exposed to strong winds.


zincZinc deficiently is first noticeable on the young leaves of the plant; the leaves appear small and grow close together. Also leaf tissue between the main veins will become mottled yellow.  In extreme cases of zine deficit, dieback and increased production of small, weak twigs will occur. Citrus trees suffering deficiency in zinc will certainly follow with a decline in the yield. In light, sandy soil zinc is leached out. In soils with high organic matter lime content zinc is present but unavailable to the plant.

Control Methods:Zinc is not very mobile in the plant so a foliage cover spray is essential to enhance fruit set. Zinc sprays should be applied prior to fruit set for maximum benefit. Also add urea as it will make uptake of zinc more efficient and supply extra nitrogen.


Citrus leaves can turn yellow for a number of reasons wet or cold temperatures, lack of feeding and deficiencies.

Cold weather can cause citrus leaves to curl. Cold can cause the tissue in the leaves to dry out leaving a burnt appearance. If possible, cover citrus trees if you expect a freeze.

Sunburn can leave yellow or brown leathery spots on the fruit and leaves, likely on the south and west sides of the tree. Too much heat can cause leaves to curl.

Overwatering is another common cause of unhealthy looking leaves. Too much water can cause leaves to curl, turn yellow, and drop. If you suspect overwatering, reduce your watering schedule and look for signs of improvements. Also make sure your tree has proper drainage and there is no mulch around the trees.


Garden Clubs and Societies



PO Box 10104, Gouger Street BC, Adelaide, South Australia 5000
Monthly Meetings are held on the third Friday of each month (except December) at 7.30 pm at the Western Youth Centre, 79 Marion Road Cowandilla SA


Monthly Meetings are held on the third Thursday of each month (except December) at 10.00am at the Western Youth Centre, 79 Marion Road Cowandilla SA
Secretary: Eva Warwick
Membership Secretary: Joy King
President: John Gay


Fern Society by Email Information:

Postal Address:
Fern Society of South Australia Inc.
GPO Box 711 Adelaide,  South Australia 5001
We meet on the fourth Friday of each month (except December) at the Adelaide High School Auditorium, West Terrace, corner Hilton Road, Adelaide.


Meetings are held monthly on the first Monday of each month commencing at 7:45pm.
Community Hall
Corner of North East Road and Wellington Streets
Klemzig, SA
0414 469 269


Meetings of the Society are held on the 1st Tuesday of each month at 7.15 pm with the exception of July and December.
Location for the monthly meeting is:
Prospect Town Hall Complex
128 Prospect Road, Prospect
(access from Olive or Vine Streets)


32-34 Rosa St Goodwood, SA 5034
08 8280 7338
PO Box 355 Highgate, SA 5063
4th Tues 7.30am
Wheelchair access, Disability toilets, Disability parking


Corner Myall Avenue & Standen Street (PO Box 652), Murray Bridge, South Australia 5253
Meet in the Seventh Day Adventist Hall, corner of Myall Ave & Standen St Murray Bridge on the 4th Sunday of every month at 1.45. No meeting in December.
(08) 8276 5558


MEETINGS:- Monthly 2nd Thurs 8pm (except January)
Beginners forum 7.15pm at Elderly Centre, 37 Fourteenth St, Gawler South


Modbury Uniting Church
572-576 Montague Rd
Modbury 5092
Phone: 8263 9298
MEETINGS are held on the first Monday of each month except January at the Uniting Church Hall, Montague Road, Modbury North, South Australia, opposite the Tea Tree Gully Council Chambers. Doors open at 7.30pm. Meetings start at 8.00pm


Lutheran Church Hall 6 Aldersey St McLaren Vale, SA 5171 Australia
08 8323 7742 Chris McComas
0419 532 545
PO Box 136 Willunga, SA 5172 Australia
Meetings: 2nd Thurs 7.30pm
Access: Wheelchair access, Disability toilets, Disability parking


Monthly Meetings
Club Meetings and Workshops are held at the
Goodwood Community Centre, 32a Rosa Street, Goodwood
Phone: 0403883269
Club Meetings: are held on the first Tuesday of the month, commencing 8.00pm.


The Australasian Carnivorous Plant Society is a non-profit organisation formed in December 2002 to promote the cultivation, conservation and knowledge about carnivorous plants


Members and General Public are most welcome at our monthly meeting held at the Burnside City Uniting Church, Portrush Road, Tusmore on the second Wednesday of the month at 7.45pm (excepting December and January)


Meetings will be held at the Burnside Community Centre, 401 Greenhill Road,
Tusmore, corner of Portrush Road, behind Burnside Town Hall, starting at 7:45pm.

Contact Jenny Meacham
PO Box 659
Nairne SA 5252
(08) 8388 6583


Meetings are held monthly on the fourth Tuesday of each month (except December and January)
8.00pm , at St Matthews Hall, Bridge Street, Kensington.

Native Orchid Society of South Australia
PO Box 565 Unley SA 5061

Pond Plants Care and Maintenance

Planting Guide

Just as all garden plants require different growing conditions, so do water plants. There are plants that prefer to float on the water, plants that will happily grow quite deep, and many others that grow somewhere in between. A good rule of thumb is to aim for about 50% coverage of the water surface with plants.

A well designed water garden will include (where pond size allows), plants that will grow happily in all depths. This will make it easier to reach a good balance in your pond which in turn decreases any problems you may have. If adding fish be sure to only add the correct number for the pond size, and don’t overfeed as this will add too many nutrients to the water.

 The Different Planting Depths

  • Floating plants do just that, float freely on the water surface. They offer shelter, breeding habitat and food for fish. Will shade the pond and help prevent algal growth.
  • Bog plants grow around the margins of the pond and will tolerate seasonal flooding, catch excess rainfall and prevent erosion around the pond edges. This in turn will protect the edges from damage by cats or dogs. They can attract and harbor wildlife to the pond, such as lizards, birds and frogs.
  • Marginal plants grow in shallow water to a depth of about 20cms. Not only do they make the edges of the pond more attractive and hide unsightly wiring, they can also offer shelter for fish and frogs. Also a good plant choice for shallow pots.
  • These plants grow with their foliage totally submerged at a depth of 20-40cms. They play an important role in water clarity by oxygenating and removing toxic elements from the water. Some plants will also have foliage above the water providing shade keeping the water cooler and decreasing algal problems. They can provide shelter for aquatic life to spawn, protection from external predators and even protect the smaller fish from the larger fish.
  • Deeper growing plants greater than 40cms, provide shade for the water surface, help reduce evaporation and shelter aquatic life from predators. They can also improve water quality through oxygenating, filtering and consuming nutrients.

Soil for potting

Ideally soils should be not too clayey and not too sandy, but rather a good mix. A clay loam will do, especially if you know it grows great veges. Just dig the soil from your garden as long as you know it is not contaminated. Alternatively aquatic mixes are available commercially.

Pond Maintenance and Cleaning

Regular cleaning and maintenance of your pond will reduce the occurrence of murky water, algal growth and dead fish. Removing any dead foliage and windblown debris on a regular basis will minimise the workload and result in a healthier more vibrant pond. Ponds under or near a deciduous tree will need the fallen leaves removed in autumn before they fall to the bottom of the pond. As the temperature warms up in spring these decomposing leaves release large amounts of nutrients into the water which in turn can promote algal growth.

Plants should be fertilised as they start to put on new growth in spring. Pond fertiliser tablets are available, but be careful not to over fertilise as this can add nutrient overload to the water and encourage algae. Make a hole in the soil with your finger, pop the tablet in and cover with soil.

A healthy balanced pond should need only occasional water changes. Spring is a good time for this, removing about 25% of water only. Your pond contains many beneficial organisms so you do not want to upset the balance by removing too much water. Spring is also a good time to replenish your supply of plants to reach 50% cover of the pond. Each pond is unique and for this reason the time it takes to achieve a healthy balance can vary, anywhere up to a year.

Check and clean any filters you may have in your pond. A healthy pond with the right balance of plants and fish can be maintained without the use of pumps. Larger ponds can be easier to maintain than smaller ones.